Average Weather in Vatican City Vatican City
In Vatican City, the summers are short, hot, humid, dry, and mostly clear and the winters are long, cold, wet, and partly cloudy. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 37°F to 88°F and is rarely below 29°F or above 94°F.
Based on the beach/pool score, the best time of year to visit Vatican City for hot-weather activities is from late June to late August.
The hot season lasts for 2.8 months, from June 17 to September 10, with an average daily high temperature above 81°F. The hottest day of the year is August 5, with an average high of 88°F and low of 66°F.
The cool season lasts for 3.9 months, from November 20 to March 18, with an average daily high temperature below 60°F. The coldest day of the year is January 13, with an average low of 37°F and high of 53°F.
Average High and Low Temperature
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
In Vatican City, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in Vatican City begins around June 10 and lasts for 3.0 months, ending around September 12. On July 21, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 88% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 12% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around September 12 and lasts for 9.0 months, ending around June 10. On November 29, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 48% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 52% of the time.
Cloud Cover Categories
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Vatican City varies throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 8.1 months, from September 8 to May 12, with a greater than 20% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 34% on November 19.
The drier season lasts 3.9 months, from May 12 to September 8. The smallest chance of a wet day is 7% on August 2.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 34% on November 19.
Daily Chance of Precipitation
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Vatican City experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
Rain falls throughout the year in Vatican City. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around November 18, with an average total accumulation of 3.7 inches.
The least rain falls around July 24, with an average total accumulation of 0.6 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall
The length of the day in Vatican City varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2021, the shortest day is December 21, with 9 hours, 8 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 15 hours, 14 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight
The earliest sunrise is at 5:34 AM on June 14, and the latest sunrise is 2 hours, 6 minutes later at 7:40 AM on October 30. The earliest sunset is at 4:38 PM on December 8, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 11 minutes later at 8:49 PM on June 27.
Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Vatican City during 2021, starting in the spring on March 28, lasting 7.1 months, and ending in the fall on October 31.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time
The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2021. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.
Moon Rise, Set & Phases
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
Vatican City experiences extreme seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.
The muggier period of the year lasts for 3.6 months, from June 14 to October 2, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 13% of the time. The muggiest day of the year is August 10, with muggy conditions 52% of the time.
The least muggy day of the year is December 17, when muggy conditions are essentially unheard of.
Humidity Comfort Levels
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Vatican City experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 6.4 months, from October 22 to May 1, with average wind speeds of more than 7.8 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is April 3, with an average hourly wind speed of 8.6 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 5.6 months, from May 1 to October 22. The calmest day of the year is August 12, with an average hourly wind speed of 6.9 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed
The predominant average hourly wind direction in Vatican City varies throughout the year.
The wind is most often from the south for 1.7 weeks, from February 11 to February 23; for 2.4 months, from March 3 to May 14; and for 1.9 months, from September 20 to November 17, with a peak percentage of 34% on October 18. The wind is most often from the east for 1.1 weeks, from February 23 to March 3 and for 2.8 months, from November 17 to February 11, with a peak percentage of 28% on March 1. The wind is most often from the west for 4.2 months, from May 14 to September 20, with a peak percentage of 44% on July 24.
Vatican City is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.
The average water temperature experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The time of year with warmer water lasts for 2.8 months, from June 29 to September 22, with an average temperature above 73°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 11, with an average temperature of 78°F.
The time of year with cooler water lasts for 4.4 months, from December 16 to April 29, with an average temperature below 61°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is February 24, with an average temperature of 57°F.
Average Water Temperature
Best Time of Year to Visit
To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Vatican City throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.
The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best times of year to visit Vatican City for general outdoor tourist activities are from mid May to mid July and from late August to early October, with a peak score in the second week of June.
The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Vatican City for hot-weather activities is from late June to late August, with a peak score in the third week of July.
For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.
Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.
Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.
Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.
Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
The growing season in Vatican City typically lasts for 9.6 months (290 days), from around February 27 to around December 14, rarely starting before January 30 or after March 21, and rarely ending before November 17 or after January 5.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in Vatican City should appear around March 2, only rarely appearing before February 14 or after March 20.
Growing Degree Days
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.2 months, from May 10 to August 17, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 6.5 kWh. The brightest day of the year is July 6, with an average of 7.7 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from October 28 to February 15, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 2.9 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 16, with an average of 1.7 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Vatican City are 41.903 deg latitude, 12.454 deg longitude, and 200 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Vatican City contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 449 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 188 feet. Within 10 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (587 feet). Within 50 miles contains significant variations in elevation (7,241 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Vatican City is covered by artificial surfaces (89%), within 10 miles by cropland (55%) and artificial surfaces (39%), and within 50 miles by cropland (36%) and water (35%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Vatican City, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There are 4 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Vatican City.
For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Vatican City according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
The estimated value at Vatican City is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Vatican City and a given station.
The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Rome Urbe Airport (61%, 7 kilometers, northeast); Roma Ciampino Airport (18%, 16 kilometers, southeast); Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport (14%, 20 kilometers, southwest); and Vigna Di Valle (7%, 28 kilometers, northwest).
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.