Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Vatican Vatican City
In Vatican, the summers are short, hot, humid, dry, and mostly clear and the winters are long, cold, wet, and partly cloudy. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 35°F to 89°F and is rarely below 27°F or above 96°F.
Based on the beach/pool score, the best time of year to visit Vatican for hot-weather activities is from late June to late August.
Climate in Vatican
The hot season lasts for 2.8 months, from June 17 to September 10, with an average daily high temperature above 82°F. The hottest month of the year in Vatican is August, with an average high of 88°F and low of 64°F.
The cool season lasts for 3.9 months, from November 19 to March 16, with an average daily high temperature below 61°F. The coldest month of the year in Vatican is January, with an average low of 36°F and high of 54°F.
Average High and Low Temperature in Vatican
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature in Vatican
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
In Vatican, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in Vatican begins around June 9 and lasts for 3.1 months, ending around September 12.
The clearest month of the year in Vatican is July, during which on average the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 87% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around September 12 and lasts for 8.9 months, ending around June 9.
The cloudiest month of the year in Vatican is November, during which on average the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 47% of the time.
Cloud Cover Categories in Vatican
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Vatican varies throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 8.1 months, from September 8 to May 12, with a greater than 20% chance of a given day being a wet day. The month with the most wet days in Vatican is November, with an average of 9.4 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
The drier season lasts 3.9 months, from May 12 to September 8. The month with the fewest wet days in Vatican is July, with an average of 2.8 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. The month with the most days of rain alone in Vatican is November, with an average of 9.3 days. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 33% on November 19.
Daily Chance of Precipitation in Vatican
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Vatican experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
Rain falls throughout the year in Vatican. The month with the most rain in Vatican is November, with an average rainfall of 3.6 inches.
The month with the least rain in Vatican is July, with an average rainfall of 0.7 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall in Vatican
The length of the day in Vatican varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2023, the shortest day is December 22, with 9 hours, 8 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 15 hours, 14 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight in Vatican
The earliest sunrise is at 5:34 AM on June 15, and the latest sunrise is 2 hours, 4 minutes later at 7:38 AM on January 3. The earliest sunset is at 4:38 PM on December 9, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 11 minutes later at 8:49 PM on June 27.
Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Vatican during 2023, starting in the spring on March 26, lasting 7.1 months, and ending in the fall on October 29.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in Vatican
The figure below presents a compact representation of the sun's elevation (the angle of the sun above the horizon) and azimuth (its compass bearing) for every hour of every day in the reporting period. The horizontal axis is the day of the year and the vertical axis is the hour of the day. For a given day and hour of that day, the background color indicates the azimuth of the sun at that moment. The black isolines are contours of constant solar elevation.
Solar Elevation and Azimuth in Vatican
The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2023. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.
Moon Rise, Set & Phases in Vatican
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
Vatican experiences significant seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.
The muggier period of the year lasts for 3.7 months, from June 14 to October 4, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 12% of the time. The month with the most muggy days in Vatican is August, with 13.9 days that are muggy or worse.
The least muggy day of the year is February 22, when muggy conditions are essentially unheard of.
Humidity Comfort Levels in Vatican
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Vatican experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 3.1 months, from January 27 to April 30, with average wind speeds of more than 7.6 miles per hour. The windiest month of the year in Vatican is March, with an average hourly wind speed of 8.1 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 8.9 months, from April 30 to January 27. The calmest month of the year in Vatican is August, with an average hourly wind speed of 6.9 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed in Vatican
The predominant average hourly wind direction in Vatican varies throughout the year.
The wind is most often from the south for 2.4 months, from March 4 to May 17 and for 1.7 months, from September 18 to November 9, with a peak percentage of 34% on October 18. The wind is most often from the west for 4.0 months, from May 17 to September 18, with a peak percentage of 43% on July 24. The wind is most often from the east for 3.8 months, from November 9 to March 4, with a peak percentage of 33% on January 1.
Wind Direction in Vatican
Vatican is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.
The average water temperature experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The time of year with warmer water lasts for 2.8 months, from June 29 to September 22, with an average temperature above 74°F. The month of the year in Vatican with the warmest water is August, with an average temperature of 77°F.
The time of year with cooler water lasts for 4.4 months, from December 16 to April 29, with an average temperature below 61°F. The month of the year in Vatican with the coolest water is February, with an average temperature of 57°F.
Average Water Temperature in Vatican
To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Vatican throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.
The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best times of year to visit Vatican for general outdoor tourist activities are from early May to mid July and from late August to early October, with a peak score in the second week of June.
Tourism Score in Vatican
The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Vatican for hot-weather activities is from late June to late August, with a peak score in the third week of July.
Beach/Pool Score in Vatican
For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.
Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.
Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.
Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.
Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
The growing season in Vatican typically lasts for 8.9 months (270 days), from around March 6 to around December 1, rarely starting before February 9 or after March 29, and rarely ending before November 10 or after December 23.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Vatican
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in Vatican should appear around February 28, only rarely appearing before February 14 or after March 19.
Growing Degree Days in Vatican
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.2 months, from May 11 to August 18, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 6.5 kWh. The brightest month of the year in Vatican is July, with an average of 7.5 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 3.6 months, from October 28 to February 15, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 2.9 kWh. The darkest month of the year in Vatican is December, with an average of 1.8 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in Vatican
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Vatican are 41.902 deg latitude, 12.453 deg longitude, and 0 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Vatican is essentially flat, with a maximum elevation change of 0 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 0 feet. Within 10 miles is also essentially flat (0 feet). Within 50 miles is also essentially flat (0 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Vatican is covered by artificial surfaces (91%), within 10 miles by cropland (54%) and artificial surfaces (40%), and within 50 miles by cropland (36%) and water (35%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Vatican, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
The details of the data sources used for this report can be found on the Rome Urbe Airport page.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.
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