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Average Weather in Rome Italy

In Rome, the summers are short, hot, humid, dry, and mostly clear and the winters are long, cold, wet, and partly cloudy. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 37°F to 89°F and is rarely below 28°F or above 95°F.

Climate Summary

coldcoolwarmhotwarmcoolJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec88%88%52%52%clearovercastprecipitation: 3.7 inprecipitation: 3.7 in0.6 in0.6 inmuggy: 51%muggy: 51%0%0%drydrybeach/pool score: 8.5beach/pool score: 8.50.00.0
Click on each chart for more information.

Based on the beach/pool score, the best time of year to visit Rome for hot-weather activities is from late June to late August.

Temperature

The hot season lasts for 2.8 months, from June 17 to September 10, with an average daily high temperature above 82°F. The hottest day of the year is August 5, with an average high of 89°F and low of 66°F.

The cool season lasts for 3.9 months, from November 20 to March 17, with an average daily high temperature below 60°F. The coldest day of the year is January 13, with an average low of 37°F and high of 53°F.

Average High and Low Temperature

The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature

Average Hourly Temperature in RomeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM4 AM8 AM12 PM4 PM8 PM12 AMcomfortablewarmhotcoldcoolvery cold
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < very cold < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Clouds

In Rome, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year in Rome begins around June 10 and lasts for 3.1 months, ending around September 12. On July 21, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 88% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 12% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around September 12 and lasts for 8.9 months, ending around June 10. On November 29, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 48% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 52% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories

Cloud Cover Categories in RomeclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Jul 2188%Jul 2188%Nov 2952%Nov 2952%Jun 1070%Jun 1070%Sep 1270%Sep 1270%mostly cloudyclearovercastmostly clearpartly cloudy
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds: clear < 20% < mostly clear < 40% < partly cloudy < 60% < mostly cloudy < 80% < overcast.

Precipitation

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Rome varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 8.1 months, from September 8 to May 11, with a greater than 20% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 34% on November 19.

The drier season lasts 3.9 months, from May 11 to September 8. The smallest chance of a wet day is 7% on August 2.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 34% on November 19.

Daily Chance of Precipitation

Daily Chance of Precipitation in RomewetwetdryJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Nov 1934%Nov 1934%Aug 27%Aug 27%Jan 122%Jan 122%Sep 820%Sep 820%May 1120%May 1120%rain
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Rome experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

Rain falls throughout the year in Rome. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around November 18, with an average total accumulation of 3.7 inches.

The least rain falls around July 25, with an average total accumulation of 0.6 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall

The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Sun

The length of the day in Rome varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2017, the shortest day is December 21, with 9 hours, 8 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 15 hours, 14 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight

The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 5:34 AM on June 15, and the latest sunrise is 2 hours, 4 minutes later at 7:37 AM on January 3. The earliest sunset is at 4:38 PM on December 8, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 11 minutes later at 8:49 PM on June 27.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Rome during 2017, starting in the spring on March 26, lasting 7.1 months, and ending in the fall on October 29.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in RomeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJun 155:34 AMJun 155:34 AM8:49 PMJun 278:49 PMJun 27Dec 84:38 PMDec 84:38 PM7:37 AMJan 37:37 AMJan 3Mar 26DSTMar 26DSTDSTOct 29DSTOct 29daynightnightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunset
The solar day over the course of the year 2017. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

Rome experiences extreme seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.

The muggier period of the year lasts for 3.6 months, from June 14 to October 2, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 13% of the time. The muggiest day of the year is August 12, with muggy conditions 51% of the time.

The least muggy day of the year is December 17, when muggy conditions are essentially unheard of.

Humidity Comfort Levels

Humidity Comfort Levels in RomemuggyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Dec 170%Dec 170%Aug 1251%Aug 1251%Jun 1413%Jun 1413%Oct 213%Oct 213%muggymuggydrydryhumidhumidoppressiveoppressivecomfortablecomfortable
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point: dry < 55°F < comfortable < 60°F < humid < 65°F < muggy < 70°F < oppressive < 75°F < miserable.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed in Rome experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 3.3 months, from January 24 to May 1, with average wind speeds of more than 7.7 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is April 3, with an average hourly wind speed of 8.5 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 8.7 months, from May 1 to January 24. The calmest day of the year is August 12, with an average hourly wind speed of 6.8 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed

Average Wind Speed in RomewindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph2 mph4 mph6 mph8 mph10 mph12 mph14 mphApr 38.5 mphApr 38.5 mphAug 126.8 mphAug 126.8 mphJan 247.7 mphJan 247.7 mph
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction in Rome varies throughout the year.

The wind is most often from the south for 2.3 months, from March 4 to May 13 and for 1.7 months, from September 20 to November 11, with a peak percentage of 34% on October 18. The wind is most often from the west for 4.2 months, from May 13 to September 20, with a peak percentage of 44% on July 23. The wind is most often from the east for 3.8 months, from November 11 to March 4, with a peak percentage of 32% on January 1.

Wind Direction

Wind Direction in RomeESWSEJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%eastwestnorthsouth
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions (north, east, south, and west), excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Water Temperature

Rome is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 2.8 months, from June 29 to September 22, with an average temperature above 74°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 12, with an average temperature of 78°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 4.4 months, from December 16 to April 29, with an average temperature below 61°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is February 26, with an average temperature of 57°F.

Average Water Temperature

The daily average water temperature (purple line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Best Time of Year to Visit

To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Rome throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best times of year to visit Rome for general outdoor tourist activities are from mid May to mid July and from late August to early October, with a peak score in the second week of June.

Tourism Score

Tourism Score in Romebest timebest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec02468107.67.61.21.27.47.46.36.3 precipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperaturetourism score
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Rome for hot-weather activities is from late June to late August, with a peak score in the third week of July.

Beach/Pool Score

Beach/Pool Score in Romebest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec02468108.58.50.00.0 precipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperaturebeach/pool score
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Growing Season

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season in Rome typically lasts for 9.2 months (281 days), from around March 2 to around December 8, rarely starting before February 5 or after March 25, and rarely ending before November 13 or after January 1.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Romegrowing seasonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%50%Mar 250%Mar 250%Dec 850%Dec 890%Mar 2590%Mar 2590%Nov 1390%Nov 1310%Feb 510%Feb 511%Jan 111%Jan 11%Jan 161%Jan 16Jul 22100%Jul 22100%warmhotcoldcoolvery coldcomfortable
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < very cold < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in Rome should appear around February 28, only rarely appearing before February 11 or after March 19.

Growing Degree Days

Growing Degree Days in RomeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F500°F1,000°F1,500°F2,000°F2,500°F3,000°F3,500°F4,000°F4,500°FFeb 2886°FFeb 2886°FJun 4900°FJun 4900°FJul 141,800°FJul 141,800°FDec 314,241°FDec 314,241°F
The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.2 months, from May 10 to August 18, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 6.5 kWh. The brightest day of the year is July 6, with an average of 7.7 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from October 28 to February 15, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 2.9 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 16, with an average of 1.7 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy

The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Rome are 41.892 deg latitude, 12.511 deg longitude, and 141 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Rome contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 249 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 152 feet. Within 10 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (938 feet). Within 50 miles contains very significant variations in elevation (8,110 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Rome is covered by artificial surfaces (97%), within 10 miles by cropland (54%) and artificial surfaces (43%), and within 50 miles by cropland (36%) and water (33%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather in Rome, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

There are 3 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Rome.

For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Rome according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.

The estimated value at Rome is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Rome and a given station.

The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Rome Urbe Airport (67%, 7 kilometers, north); Roma Ciampino Airport (22%, 12 kilometers, southeast); and Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport (11%, 24 kilometers, southwest).

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.