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Climate and Average Weather Year Round at Verona Villafranca Airport Italy

At Verona Villafranca Airport, the summers are warm and humid, the winters are very cold, and it is partly cloudy year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 30°F to 86°F and is rarely below 22°F or above 93°F.

Based on the beach/pool score, the best time of year to visit Verona Villafranca Airport for hot-weather activities is from late June to late August.

Climate at Verona Villafranca Airport

coldcoolwarmhotwarmcoolcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecNowNow75%75%47%47%clearovercastprecipitation: 3.0 inprecipitation: 3.0 in1.4 in1.4 inmuggy: 63%muggy: 63%0%0%drydrybeach/pool score: 7.4beach/pool score: 7.40.00.0
Verona Villafranca Airport weather by month. Click on each chart for more information.

Average Temperature at Verona Villafranca Airport

The hot season lasts for 3.4 months, from June 1 to September 13, with an average daily high temperature above 77°F. The hottest day of the year is July 26, with an average high of 86°F and low of 67°F.

The cold season lasts for 3.2 months, from November 20 to February 27, with an average daily high temperature below 51°F. The coldest day of the year is January 12, with an average low of 30°F and high of 43°F.

Average High and Low Temperature at Verona Villafranca Airport

Average High and Low Temperature at Verona Villafranca AirporthotcoldcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F10°F10°F20°F20°F30°F30°F40°F40°F50°F50°F60°F60°F70°F70°F80°F80°F90°F90°F100°F100°FJan 1243°FJan 1243°FJul 2686°FJul 2686°F30°F30°F67°F67°FJun 177°FJun 177°FSep 1377°FSep 1377°FNov 2051°FNov 2051°FFeb 2751°FFeb 2751°F59°F59°F59°F59°F39°F39°F35°F35°FNowNow
The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature at Verona Villafranca Airport

Average Hourly Temperature at Verona Villafranca AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM12 AM4 AM4 AM8 AM8 AM12 PM12 PM4 PM4 PM8 PM8 PM12 AM12 AMNowNowvery coldvery coldcoldcoldcoolcoolcomfortablewarmhot
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Jeffersonville, Kentucky, United States (4,627 miles away) is the far-away foreign place with temperatures most similar to Verona Villafranca Airport (view comparison).

Compare Verona Villafranca Airport to another city:

Clouds

At Verona Villafranca Airport, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year at Verona Villafranca Airport begins around June 17 and lasts for 3.1 months, ending around September 21. On July 21, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 75% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 25% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around September 21 and lasts for 8.9 months, ending around June 17. On November 19, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 54% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 47% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories at Verona Villafranca Airport

Cloud Cover Categories at Verona Villafranca AirportclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Jul 2175%Jul 2175%Nov 1947%Nov 1947%Jun 1761%Jun 1761%Sep 2161%Sep 2161%NowNowclearmostly clearpartly cloudymostly cloudyovercast
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds.

Precipitation

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days at Verona Villafranca Airport varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 7.8 months, from March 28 to November 23, with a greater than 23% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 30% on June 4.

The drier season lasts 4.2 months, from November 23 to March 28. The smallest chance of a wet day is 15% on January 23.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 30% on June 4.

Daily Chance of Precipitation at Verona Villafranca Airport

Daily Chance of Precipitation at Verona Villafranca AirportwetdrydryJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Jun 430%Jun 430%Jan 2315%Jan 2315%Jan 118%Jan 118%Mar 2823%Mar 2823%NowNowrain
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Verona Villafranca Airport experiences some seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

Rain falls throughout the year at Verona Villafranca Airport. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around October 23, with an average total accumulation of 3.0 inches.

The least rain falls around January 19, with an average total accumulation of 1.3 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall at Verona Villafranca Airport

Average Monthly Rainfall at Verona Villafranca AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in0 in1 in1 in2 in2 in3 in3 in4 in4 in5 in5 in6 in6 inOct 233.0 inOct 233.0 inJan 191.3 inJan 191.3 inMay 212.5 inMay 212.5 inJul 231.9 inJul 231.9 inNowNow
The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Snowfall

The sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent quantity of snowfall at Verona Villafranca Airport does not vary significantly over the course of the year, staying within 0.1 inches of 0.1 inches throughout.

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall at Verona Villafranca Airport

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall at Verona Villafranca AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0.0 in0.0 in0.5 in0.5 in1.0 in1.0 in1.5 in1.5 in2.0 in2.0 in2.5 in2.5 in3.0 in3.0 inJan 10.1 inJan 10.1 inJul 180.0 inJul 180.0 inJan 130.1 inJan 130.1 inNowNow
The average liquid-equivalent snowfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average rainfall.

Sun

The length of the day at Verona Villafranca Airport varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2021, the shortest day is December 21, with 8 hours, 43 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 15 hours, 40 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight at Verona Villafranca Airport

Hours of Daylight and Twilight at Verona Villafranca AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 hr24 hr4 hr20 hr8 hr16 hr12 hr12 hr16 hr8 hr20 hr4 hr24 hr0 hr12 hr, 6 minMar 2012 hr, 6 minMar 2015 hr, 40 minJun 2115 hr, 40 minJun 2112 hr, 10 minSep 2212 hr, 10 minSep 228 hr, 43 minDec 218 hr, 43 minDec 21nightnightdayNowNow
The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 5:27 AM on June 15, and the latest sunrise is 2 hours, 29 minutes later at 7:56 AM on January 2. The earliest sunset is at 4:33 PM on December 10, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 36 minutes later at 9:08 PM on June 26.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed at Verona Villafranca Airport during 2021, starting in the spring on March 28, lasting 7.1 months, and ending in the fall on October 31.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time at Verona Villafranca Airport

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time at Verona Villafranca AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJun 155:27 AMJun 155:27 AM9:08 PMJun 269:08 PMJun 26Dec 104:33 PMDec 104:33 PM7:56 AMJan 27:56 AMJan 2Mar 28DSTMar 28DSTDSTOct 31DSTOct 31daynightnightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunsetNowNow
The solar day over the course of the year 2021. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

Moon

The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2021. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.

Moon Rise, Set & Phases at Verona Villafranca Airport

The time in which the moon is above the horizon (light blue area), with new moons (dark gray lines) and full moons (blue lines) indicated. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

Verona Villafranca Airport experiences extreme seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.

The muggier period of the year lasts for 3.7 months, from June 1 to September 21, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 16% of the time. The muggiest day of the year is August 5, with muggy conditions 63% of the time.

The least muggy day of the year is December 12, when muggy conditions are essentially unheard of.

Humidity Comfort Levels at Verona Villafranca Airport

Humidity Comfort Levels at Verona Villafranca AirportmuggyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Dec 120%Dec 120%Aug 563%Aug 563%Jun 116%Jun 116%Sep 2116%Sep 2116%NowNowoppressiveoppressivemuggymuggydrydryhumidhumidcomfortablecomfortablemiserablemiserable
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed at Verona Villafranca Airport experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 3.7 months, from February 1 to May 24, with average wind speeds of more than 5.2 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is April 6, with an average hourly wind speed of 5.9 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 8.2 months, from May 24 to February 1. The calmest day of the year is August 7, with an average hourly wind speed of 4.5 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed at Verona Villafranca Airport

Average Wind Speed at Verona Villafranca AirportwindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph0 mph1 mph1 mph2 mph2 mph3 mph3 mph4 mph4 mph5 mph5 mph6 mph6 mph7 mph7 mph8 mph8 mph9 mph9 mph10 mph10 mphApr 65.9 mphApr 65.9 mphAug 74.5 mphAug 74.5 mphFeb 15.2 mphFeb 15.2 mphMay 245.2 mphMay 245.2 mphNowNow
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction at Verona Villafranca Airport is from the east throughout the year.

Wind Direction at Verona Villafranca Airport

Wind Direction at Verona Villafranca AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%NowNowwesteastnorthsouth
northeastsouthwest
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions, excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1.0 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Water Temperature

Verona Villafranca Airport is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 3.0 months, from June 17 to September 17, with an average temperature above 72°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 5, with an average temperature of 78°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 3.7 months, from December 19 to April 8, with an average temperature below 54°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is February 16, with an average temperature of 48°F.

Average Water Temperature at Verona Villafranca Airport

Average Water Temperature at Verona Villafranca AirportwarmcoolJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec40°F40°F45°F45°F50°F50°F55°F55°F60°F60°F65°F65°F70°F70°F75°F75°F80°F80°F85°F85°FAug 578°FAug 578°F48°FFeb 1648°FFeb 16Jun 1772°FJun 1772°FSep 1772°FSep 1772°FDec 1954°FDec 1954°FApr 854°FApr 854°FNowNow
The daily average water temperature (purple line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Best Time of Year to Visit

To characterize how pleasant the weather is at Verona Villafranca Airport throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best times of year to visit Verona Villafranca Airport for general outdoor tourist activities are from mid May to mid June and from late August to early October, with a peak score in the second week of September.

Tourism Score at Verona Villafranca Airport

Tourism Score at Verona Villafranca Airportbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810107.27.20.10.16.76.75.85.8NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperaturetourism score
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Verona Villafranca Airport for hot-weather activities is from late June to late August, with a peak score in the third week of July.

Beach/Pool Score at Verona Villafranca Airport

Beach/Pool Score at Verona Villafranca Airportbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810107.47.40.00.0NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperature beach/pool score
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Growing Season

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season at Verona Villafranca Airport typically lasts for 8.4 months (258 days), from around March 6 to around November 20, rarely starting before February 12 or after March 29, and rarely ending before October 30 or after December 12.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season at Verona Villafranca Airport

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season at Verona Villafranca Airportgrowing seasonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%50%Mar 650%Mar 650%Nov 2050%Nov 2090%Mar 2990%Mar 2990%Oct 3090%Oct 3010%Feb 1210%Feb 1210%Dec 1210%Dec 12Jul 18100%Jul 18100%NowNowfreezingvery coldcoldcoolcomfortablewarmhot
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms at Verona Villafranca Airport should appear around March 30, only rarely appearing before March 16 or after April 15.

Growing Degree Days at Verona Villafranca Airport

Growing Degree Days at Verona Villafranca AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F500°F500°F1,000°F1,000°F1,500°F1,500°F2,000°F2,000°F2,500°F2,500°F3,000°F3,000°F3,500°F3,500°F4,000°F4,000°FMar 3089°FMar 3089°FJun 8900°FJun 8900°FJul 161,800°FJul 161,800°FDec 313,780°FDec 313,780°FNowNow
The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.3 months, from May 9 to August 18, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 5.8 kWh. The brightest day of the year is July 8, with an average of 7.0 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 3.4 months, from October 28 to February 12, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 2.5 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 16, with an average of 1.4 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy at Verona Villafranca Airport

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy at Verona Villafranca AirportbrightdarkdarkJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 kWh0 kWh1 kWh1 kWh2 kWh2 kWh3 kWh3 kWh4 kWh4 kWh5 kWh5 kWh6 kWh6 kWh7 kWh7 kWh8 kWh8 kWh9 kWh9 kWhJul 87.0 kWhJul 87.0 kWhDec 161.4 kWhDec 161.4 kWhMay 95.8 kWhMay 95.8 kWhAug 185.8 kWhAug 185.8 kWhOct 282.5 kWhOct 282.5 kWhFeb 122.5 kWhFeb 122.5 kWhNowNow
The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Verona Villafranca Airport are 45.396 deg latitude, 10.889 deg longitude, and 233 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Verona Villafranca Airport contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 138 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 221 feet. Within 10 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (1,775 feet). Within 50 miles contains very significant variations in elevation (9,669 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Verona Villafranca Airport is covered by cropland (67%) and artificial surfaces (33%), within 10 miles by cropland (76%) and artificial surfaces (18%), and within 50 miles by cropland (61%) and trees (23%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather at Verona Villafranca Airport, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

Verona Villafranca Airport has a weather station that reported reliably enough during the analysis period that we have included it in our network. When available, historical temperature and dew point measurements are taken directly from this weather station. These records are obtained from NOAA's Integrated Surface Hourly data set, falling back on ICAO METAR records as required.

In the case of missing or erroneous measurements from this station, we fall back on records from nearby stations, adjusted according to typical seasonal and diurnal intra-station differences. For a given day of the year and hour of the day, the fallback station is selected to minimize the prediction error over the years for which there are measurements for both stations.

The stations on which we may fall back include but are not limited to Verona Brescia Airport, Brescia / Ghedi, Paganella, Bologna Guglielmo Marconi Airport, Bolzano Dolomiti Airport, Monte Cimone, Il Caravaggio International Airport, and Istrana.

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.