Average Weather in Mecca Saudi Arabia
In Mecca, the summers are long, sweltering, arid, and partly cloudy and the winters are short, comfortable, dry, and mostly clear. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 61°F to 107°F and is rarely below 54°F or above 112°F.
Based on the beach/pool score, the best times of year to visit Mecca for hot-weather activities are from late February to mid April and from late October to mid December.
The hot season lasts for 4.7 months, from May 13 to October 3, with an average daily high temperature above 102°F. The hottest day of the year is June 19, with an average high of 107°F and low of 81°F.
The cool season lasts for 2.8 months, from December 2 to February 25, with an average daily high temperature below 88°F. The coldest day of the year is January 22, with an average low of 61°F and high of 84°F.
Average High and Low Temperature
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
In Mecca, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in Mecca begins around October 18 and lasts for 8.3 months, ending around June 28. On November 13, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 85% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 15% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around June 28 and lasts for 3.7 months, ending around October 18. On September 28, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 45% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 55% of the time.
Cloud Cover Categories
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
Mecca does not experience significant seasonal variation in the frequency of wet days (i.e., those with greater than 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation). The frequency ranges from 0% to 3%, with an average value of 2%.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 3% on May 6.
Daily Chance of Precipitation
The sliding 31-day quantity of rainfall in Mecca does not vary significantly over the course of the year, staying within 0.1 inches of 0.1 inches throughout.
Average Monthly Rainfall
The length of the day in Mecca varies over the course of the year. In 2019, the shortest day is December 22, with 10 hours, 50 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 13 hours, 26 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight
The earliest sunrise is at 5:37 AM on June 7, and the latest sunrise is 1 hour, 23 minutes later at 7:01 AM on January 16. The earliest sunset is at 5:37 PM on November 27, and the latest sunset is 1 hour, 30 minutes later at 7:07 PM on July 5.
Daylight saving time (DST) is not observed in Mecca during 2019.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
Mecca experiences some seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.
The muggier period of the year lasts for 4.7 months, from July 16 to December 7, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 9% of the time. The muggiest day of the year is August 30, with muggy conditions 29% of the time.
The least muggy day of the year is February 18, with muggy conditions 2% of the time.
Humidity Comfort Levels
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Mecca experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from May 18 to September 1, with average wind speeds of more than 8.6 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is July 12, with an average hourly wind speed of 9.6 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 8.5 months, from September 1 to May 18. The calmest day of the year is October 6, with an average hourly wind speed of 7.6 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed
The predominant average hourly wind direction in Mecca varies throughout the year.
The wind is most often from the west for 4.3 months, from January 16 to May 25 and for 1.6 weeks, from September 14 to September 25, with a peak percentage of 36% on May 16. The wind is most often from the north for 3.6 months, from May 25 to September 14, with a peak percentage of 49% on July 12. The wind is most often from the east for 3.7 months, from September 25 to January 16, with a peak percentage of 29% on January 1.
Mecca is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.
The average water temperature experiences some seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The time of year with warmer water lasts for 4.1 months, from July 6 to November 11, with an average temperature above 86°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 15, with an average temperature of 88°F.
The time of year with cooler water lasts for 3.0 months, from January 11 to April 10, with an average temperature below 80°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is February 19, with an average temperature of 78°F.
Average Water Temperature
Best Time of Year to Visit
To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Mecca throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.
The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Mecca for general outdoor tourist activities is from early December to early March, with a peak score in the third week of January.
The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best times of year to visit Mecca for hot-weather activities are from late February to mid April and from late October to mid December, with a peak score in the second week of November.
For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.
Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.
Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.
Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.
Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
Temperatures in Mecca are sufficiently warm year round that it is not entirely meaningful to discuss the growing season in these terms. We nevertheless include the chart below as an illustration of the distribution of temperatures experienced throughout the year.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
Growing Degree Days
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.9 months, from April 20 to August 15, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 7.3 kWh. The brightest day of the year is June 24, with an average of 8.0 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 2.7 months, from November 6 to January 28, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 5.4 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 16, with an average of 4.7 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Mecca are 21.427 deg latitude, 39.826 deg longitude, and 1,050 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Mecca contains very significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 1,106 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 1,110 feet. Within 10 miles contains very significant variations in elevation (2,690 feet). Within 50 miles contains large variations in elevation (8,609 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Mecca is covered by artificial surfaces (100%), within 10 miles by bare soil (84%) and artificial surfaces (15%), and within 50 miles by bare soil (84%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Mecca, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There are 2 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Mecca.
For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Mecca according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
The estimated value at Mecca is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Mecca and a given station.
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.