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Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Petersburg West Virginia, United States

In Petersburg, the summers are warm and humid, the winters are very cold and snowy, and it is partly cloudy year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 24°F to 87°F and is rarely below 10°F or above 94°F.

Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Petersburg for warm-weather activities is from early June to late September.

Climate in Petersburg

very coldcoldcoolwarmhotwarmcoolcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecNowNow65%65%44%44%clearovercastprecipitation: 3.7 inprecipitation: 3.7 in2.0 in2.0 inmuggy: 53%muggy: 53%0%0%drydrytourism score: 6.1tourism score: 6.10.30.3
Petersburg weather by month. Click on each chart for more information.

The hot season lasts for 3.8 months, from May 26 to September 18, with an average daily high temperature above 78°F. The hottest month of the year in Petersburg is July, with an average high of 86°F and low of 63°F.

The cold season lasts for 3.0 months, from November 29 to February 28, with an average daily high temperature below 52°F. The coldest month of the year in Petersburg is January, with an average low of 25°F and high of 44°F.

Average High and Low Temperature in Petersburg

Average High and Low Temperature in PetersburghotcoldcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F10°F10°F20°F20°F30°F30°F40°F40°F50°F50°F60°F60°F70°F70°F80°F80°F90°F90°F100°F100°FJan 3043°FJan 3043°FJul 2187°FJul 2187°F24°F24°F63°F63°FMay 2678°FMay 2678°FSep 1878°FSep 1878°FNov 2952°FNov 2952°F53°F53°F53°F53°F32°F32°F29°F29°FNowNow
The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.
AverageJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
High44°F48°F57°F68°F76°F83°F86°F85°F78°F68°F57°F47°F
Temp33°F36°F44°F54°F62°F70°F74°F72°F65°F54°F44°F36°F
Low25°F26°F33°F41°F50°F59°F63°F61°F54°F43°F34°F29°F

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature in Petersburg

Average Hourly Temperature in PetersburgJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM12 AM2 AM2 AM4 AM4 AM6 AM6 AM8 AM8 AM10 AM10 AM12 PM12 PM2 PM2 PM4 PM4 PM6 PM6 PM8 PM8 PM10 PM10 PM12 AM12 AMNowNowfreezingvery coldvery coldcoldcoldcoolcomfortablecomfortablewarmfreezingfreezing
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Skopje, Macedonia (4,954 miles away) and Shahrud, Iran (6,470 miles) are the far-away foreign places with temperatures most similar to Petersburg (view comparison).

Map
Marker
© Esri, et al.

Compare Petersburg to another city:

Map

In Petersburg, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year in Petersburg begins around June 22 and lasts for 4.6 months, ending around November 10.

The clearest month of the year in Petersburg is September, during which on average the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 64% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around November 10 and lasts for 7.4 months, ending around June 22.

The cloudiest month of the year in Petersburg is January, during which on average the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 56% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories in Petersburg

Cloud Cover Categories in PetersburgclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Sep 365%Sep 365%Jan 1244%Jan 1244%Jun 2254%Jun 2254%Nov 1055%Nov 1055%NowNowclearmostly clearpartly cloudymostly cloudyovercast
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds.
FractionJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Cloudier56%55%52%51%51%47%42%37%36%40%48%54%
Clearer44%45%48%49%49%53%58%63%64%60%52%46%

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Petersburg varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 4.5 months, from April 10 to August 25, with a greater than 32% chance of a given day being a wet day. The month with the most wet days in Petersburg is June, with an average of 12.3 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.

The drier season lasts 7.5 months, from August 25 to April 10. The month with the fewest wet days in Petersburg is January, with an average of 6.7 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. The month with the most days of rain alone in Petersburg is June, with an average of 12.3 days. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 43% on May 22.

Daily Chance of Precipitation in Petersburg

Daily Chance of Precipitation in PetersburgwetdrydryJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%May 2243%May 2243%Jan 1421%Jan 1421%Jan 122%Jan 122%Apr 1032%Apr 1032%Aug 2532%Aug 2532%NowNowrainmixedsnow
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).
Days ofJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Rain3.7d4.3d7.3d9.6d12.6d12.3d12.4d10.8d8.2d7.5d6.3d5.2d
Mixed1.9d1.6d1.2d0.2d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.1d0.7d1.8d
Snow1.1d0.9d0.3d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.1d0.6d
Any6.7d6.7d8.9d9.8d12.6d12.3d12.4d10.8d8.2d7.6d7.1d7.6d

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Petersburg experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

Rain falls throughout the year in Petersburg. The month with the most rain in Petersburg is May, with an average rainfall of 3.7 inches.

The month with the least rain in Petersburg is January, with an average rainfall of 1.5 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall in Petersburg

Average Monthly Rainfall in PetersburgJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in0 in1 in1 in2 in2 in3 in3 in4 in4 in5 in5 in6 in6 in7 in7 inMay 183.7 inMay 183.7 inJan 111.5 inJan 111.5 inSep 272.9 inSep 272.9 inNowNow
The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average snowfall.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Rainfall1.5″1.7″2.5″3.1″3.7″3.4″3.2″2.9″2.8″2.7″2.6″2.0″

Snowfall

As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Petersburg experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly snowfall.

The snowy period of the year lasts for 4.6 months, from November 13 to April 1, with a sliding 31-day snowfall of at least 1.0 inches. The month with the most snow in Petersburg is February, with an average snowfall of 6.2 inches.

The snowless period of the year lasts for 7.4 months, from April 1 to November 13. The least snow falls around July 17, with an average total accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Monthly Snowfall in Petersburg

The average snowfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average rainfall.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Snowfall5.7″6.2″2.7″0.2″0.0″0.0″0.0″0.0″0.0″0.1″1.1″4.3″

The length of the day in Petersburg varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2021, the shortest day is December 21, with 9 hours, 26 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 20, with 14 hours, 55 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight in Petersburg

Hours of Daylight and Twilight in PetersburgJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 hr24 hr4 hr20 hr8 hr16 hr12 hr12 hr16 hr8 hr20 hr4 hr24 hr0 hr12 hr, 7 minMar 2012 hr, 7 minMar 2014 hr, 55 minJun 2014 hr, 55 minJun 2012 hr, 9 minSep 2212 hr, 9 minSep 229 hr, 26 minDec 219 hr, 26 minDec 21nightnightdayNowNow
The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.
Hours ofJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Daylight9.8h10.8h12.0h13.3h14.4h14.9h14.6h13.6h12.4h11.1h10.0h9.5h

The earliest sunrise is at 5:50 AM on June 13, and the latest sunrise is 1 hour, 59 minutes later at 7:49 AM on November 6. The earliest sunset is at 4:53 PM on December 6, and the latest sunset is 3 hours, 52 minutes later at 8:46 PM on June 27.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Petersburg during 2021, starting in the spring on March 14, lasting 7.8 months, and ending in the fall on November 7.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in Petersburg

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in PetersburgJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJun 135:50 AMJun 135:50 AM8:46 PMJun 278:46 PMJun 27Dec 64:53 PMDec 64:53 PM7:49 AMNov 67:49 AMNov 6Mar 14DSTMar 14DSTDSTNov 7DSTNov 7daynightnightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunset
The solar day over the course of the year 2021. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2021. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.

Moon Rise, Set & Phases in Petersburg

The time in which the moon is above the horizon (light blue area), with new moons (dark gray lines) and full moons (blue lines) indicated. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

Petersburg experiences extreme seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.

The muggier period of the year lasts for 4.0 months, from May 23 to September 21, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 13% of the time. The month with the most muggy days in Petersburg is July, with 15.7 days that are muggy or worse.

The month with the fewest muggy days in Petersburg is February, with 0.0 days that are muggy or worse.

Humidity Comfort Levels in Petersburg

Humidity Comfort Levels in PetersburgmuggyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Feb 110%Feb 110%Jul 2853%Jul 2853%May 2313%May 2313%Sep 2113%Sep 2113%NowNowoppressiveoppressivemuggymuggydrydryhumidhumidcomfortablecomfortable
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Muggy (days)0.0d0.0d0.0d0.2d3.1d10.0d15.7d13.4d5.6d0.6d0.0d0.0d

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed in Petersburg experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 5.4 months, from November 13 to April 25, with average wind speeds of more than 5.0 miles per hour. The windiest month of the year in Petersburg is February, with an average hourly wind speed of 6.7 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 6.6 months, from April 25 to November 13. The calmest month of the year in Petersburg is August, with an average hourly wind speed of 3.2 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed in Petersburg

Average Wind Speed in PetersburgwindywindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph0 mph1 mph1 mph2 mph2 mph3 mph3 mph4 mph4 mph5 mph5 mph6 mph6 mph7 mph7 mph8 mph8 mph9 mph9 mph10 mph10 mph11 mph11 mphFeb 26.8 mphFeb 26.8 mphAug 133.2 mphAug 133.2 mphNov 135.0 mphNov 135.0 mphApr 255.0 mphApr 255.0 mphNowNow
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Wind Speed (mph)6.66.76.35.44.23.73.43.23.74.45.15.8

The predominant average hourly wind direction in Petersburg is from the west throughout the year.

Wind Direction in Petersburg

Wind Direction in PetersburgJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%NowNowwestsoutheastnorth
northeastsouthwest
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions, excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1.0 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Petersburg throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Petersburg for general outdoor tourist activities is from early June to late September, with a peak score in the last week of August.

Tourism Score in Petersburg

Tourism Score in Petersburgbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810106.16.10.30.3NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperature tourism score
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Petersburg for hot-weather activities is from late June to late August, with a peak score in the third week of July.

Beach/Pool Score in Petersburg

Beach/Pool Score in Petersburgbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810105.15.10.00.0NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperature beach/pool score
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season in Petersburg typically lasts for 5.6 months (172 days), from around April 25 to around October 14, rarely starting before April 5 or after May 18, and rarely ending before September 27 or after November 1.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Petersburg

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Petersburggrowing seasonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Apr 2550%Apr 2550%Oct 1450%Oct 1450%May 1890%May 1890%Sep 2790%Sep 2790%Apr 510%Apr 510%Nov 110%Nov 110%0%Feb 60%Feb 6Jul 24100%Jul 24100%NowNowfreezingvery coldcoolcomfortablewarmhotcoldfrigid
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in Petersburg should appear around March 19, only rarely appearing before March 1 or after April 5.

Growing Degree Days in Petersburg

Growing Degree Days in PetersburgJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F500°F500°F1,000°F1,000°F1,500°F1,500°F2,000°F2,000°F2,500°F2,500°F3,000°F3,000°F3,500°F3,500°FMar 1988°FMar 1988°FJun 8900°FJun 8900°FJul 191,800°FJul 191,800°FDec 313,539°FDec 313,539°FNowNow
The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.9 months, from April 30 to August 27, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 6.0 kWh. The brightest month of the year in Petersburg is June, with an average of 6.8 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 3.1 months, from November 6 to February 10, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 3.0 kWh. The darkest month of the year in Petersburg is December, with an average of 2.0 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in Petersburg

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in PetersburgbrightdarkdarkJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 kWh0 kWh1 kWh1 kWh2 kWh2 kWh3 kWh3 kWh4 kWh4 kWh5 kWh5 kWh6 kWh6 kWh7 kWh7 kWh8 kWh8 kWh9 kWh9 kWhJun 237.0 kWhJun 237.0 kWhDec 252.0 kWhDec 252.0 kWhApr 306.0 kWhApr 306.0 kWhAug 276.0 kWhAug 276.0 kWhNov 63.0 kWhNov 63.0 kWhFeb 103.0 kWhFeb 103.0 kWhNowNow
The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Solar Energy (kWh)2.33.24.45.56.36.86.76.25.23.82.62.0

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Petersburg are 38.993 deg latitude, -79.124 deg longitude, and 928 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Petersburg contains very significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 928 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 1,080 feet. Within 10 miles contains very significant variations in elevation (2,792 feet). Within 50 miles contains large variations in elevation (4,469 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Petersburg is covered by trees (52%) and cropland (39%), within 10 miles by trees (77%) and cropland (22%), and within 50 miles by trees (81%) and cropland (18%).

This report illustrates the typical weather in Petersburg, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

There are 4 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Petersburg.

For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Petersburg according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.

The estimated value at Petersburg is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Petersburg and a given station.

The stations contributing to this reconstruction are:

To get a sense of how much these sources agree with each other, you can view a comparison of Petersburg and the stations that contribute to our estimates of its temperature history and climate. Please note that each source's contribution is adjusted for elevation and the relative change present in the MERRA-2 data.

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.