Average Weather in Columbia California, United States
In Columbia, the summers are hot, arid, and mostly clear and the winters are cold, wet, and partly cloudy. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 37°F to 89°F and is rarely below 28°F or above 96°F.
The hot season lasts for 3.3 months, from June 10 to September 20, with an average daily high temperature above 82°F. The hottest day of the year is July 19, with an average high of 89°F and low of 63°F.
The cool season lasts for 3.5 months, from November 20 to March 3, with an average daily high temperature below 58°F. The coldest day of the year is December 25, with an average low of 37°F and high of 51°F.
Average High and Low Temperature
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature
In Columbia, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in Columbia begins around May 17 and lasts for 5.2 months, ending around October 25. On July 29, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 91% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 9% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around October 25 and lasts for 6.8 months, ending around May 17. On February 21, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 56% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 44% of the time.
Cloud Cover Categories
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Columbia varies significantly throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 5.7 months, from October 31 to April 19, with a greater than 16% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 31% on February 20.
The drier season lasts 6.4 months, from April 19 to October 31. The smallest chance of a wet day is 0% on August 3.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 31% on February 20.
Daily Chance of Precipitation
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Columbia experiences extreme seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
The rainy period of the year lasts for 8.2 months, from September 24 to June 1, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around February 16, with an average total accumulation of 4.4 inches.
The rainless period of the year lasts for 3.8 months, from June 1 to September 24. The least rain falls around August 9, with an average total accumulation of 0.0 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall
The length of the day in Columbia varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2017, the shortest day is December 21, with 9 hours, 31 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 20, with 14 hours, 49 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight
The earliest sunrise is at 5:38 AM on June 13, and the latest sunrise is 1 hour, 53 minutes later at 7:30 AM on November 4. The earliest sunset is at 4:41 PM on December 6, and the latest sunset is 3 hours, 47 minutes later at 8:28 PM on June 27.
Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Columbia during 2017, starting in the spring on March 12, lasting 7.8 months, and ending in the fall on November 5.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
The perceived humidity level in Columbia, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, remaining a virtually constant 0% throughout.
Humidity Comfort Levels
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.The average hourly wind speed in Columbia does not vary significantly over the course of the year, remaining within 0.4 miles per hour of 5.3 miles per hour throughout.
Average Wind Speed
The predominant average hourly wind direction in Columbia varies throughout the year.
The wind is most often from the south for 1.1 months, from February 19 to March 23, with a peak percentage of 35% on February 20. The wind is most often from the west for 6.5 months, from March 23 to October 7, with a peak percentage of 52% on June 15. The wind is most often from the east for 4.4 months, from October 7 to February 19, with a peak percentage of 46% on January 1.
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from May 9 to August 23, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 7.3 kWh. The brightest day of the year is June 27, with an average of 8.6 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from November 3 to February 18, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 3.5 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 21, with an average of 2.3 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Columbia are 38.036 deg latitude, -120.401 deg longitude, and 2,119 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Columbia contains very significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 1,490 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 2,215 feet. Within 10 miles contains very significant variations in elevation (4,413 feet). Within 50 miles also contains extreme variations in elevation (11,565 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Columbia is covered by shrubs (52%), trees (33%), and grassland (15%), within 10 miles by shrubs (47%) and trees (25%), and within 50 miles by trees (27%) and grassland (26%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Columbia, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There are 6 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Columbia.
For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Columbia according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
The estimated value at Columbia is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Columbia and a given station.
The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Modesto City-County Airport (21%, 67 kilometers, southwest); Castle Airport (20%, 74 kilometers, south); Stockton Metropolitan Airport (19%, 74 kilometers, west); Placerville Airport (24%, 82 kilometers, north); Bridgeport Sonora Junction (9%, 85 kilometers, northeast); and Lake Tahoe Airport (9%, 102 kilometers, north).
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.