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Average Weather in Madison Wisconsin, United States

In Madison, the summers are warm and wet; the winters are freezing, dry, and windy; and it is partly cloudy year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 13°F to 82°F and is rarely below -7°F or above 90°F.

Climate Summary

freezingcoldcoolwarmcoolcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec67%67%40%40%clearovercastprecipitation: 4.2 inprecipitation: 4.2 in0.8 in0.8 inmuggy: 37%muggy: 37%0%0%drydrytourism score: 6.7tourism score: 6.70.00.0
Click on each chart for more information.

Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Madison for warm-weather activities is from mid June to early September.

Temperature

The warm season lasts for 3.9 months, from May 22 to September 18, with an average daily high temperature above 71°F. The hottest day of the year is July 19, with an average high of 82°F and low of 64°F.

The cold season lasts for 3.2 months, from November 30 to March 3, with an average daily high temperature below 38°F. The coldest day of the year is January 28, with an average low of 13°F and high of 27°F.

Average High and Low Temperature

The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature

Average Hourly Temperature in MadisonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM4 AM8 AM12 PM4 PM8 PM12 AMfreezingfreezingcoldcoldcoolcomfortablewarmcomfortablevery coldvery cold
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < very cold < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Donetsk, Ukraine (5,377 miles away); Zarrit’ap’, Armenia (6,073 miles); and Almaty, Kazakhstan (6,419 miles) are the far-away foreign places with temperatures most similar to Madison (view comparison).

Clouds

In Madison, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year in Madison begins around June 7 and lasts for 4.5 months, ending around October 24. On August 26, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 67% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 33% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around October 24 and lasts for 7.5 months, ending around June 7. On January 2, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 60% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 40% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories

Cloud Cover Categories in MadisonclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Aug 2667%Aug 2667%Jan 240%Jan 240%Jun 754%Jun 754%Oct 2454%Oct 2454%clearmostly clearpartly cloudymostly cloudyovercast
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds: clear < 20% < mostly clear < 40% < partly cloudy < 60% < mostly cloudy < 80% < overcast.

Precipitation

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Madison varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 6.2 months, from March 31 to October 4, with a greater than 25% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 38% on June 10.

The drier season lasts 5.8 months, from October 4 to March 31. The smallest chance of a wet day is 12% on February 11.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation in Madison changes throughout the year.

Rain alone is the most common for 9.7 months, from February 19 to December 12. The highest chance of a day with rain alone is 38% on June 10.

Snow alone is the most common for 2.3 months, from December 12 to February 19. The highest chance of a day with snow alone is 9% on January 18.

Daily Chance of Precipitation

Daily Chance of Precipitation in MadisonsnowrainJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Jun 1038%Jun 1038%Feb 1112%Feb 1112%Dec 1218%Dec 1218%Mar 3125%Mar 3125%Oct 425%Oct 425%snowrainmixed
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Madison experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

The rainy period of the year lasts for 11 months, from February 8 to January 3, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around June 15, with an average total accumulation of 4.2 inches.

The rainless period of the year lasts for 1.2 months, from January 3 to February 8. The least rain falls around January 21, with an average total accumulation of 0.4 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall

Average Monthly Rainfall in MadisonrainJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in1 in2 in3 in4 in5 in6 in7 in8 inJun 154.2 inJun 154.2 inJan 210.4 inJan 210.4 in
The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Snowfall

We report snowfall in liquid-equivalent terms. The actual depth of new snowfall is typically between 5 and 10 times the liquid-equivalent amount, assuming the ground is frozen. Colder, drier snow tends to be on the higher end of that range and warmer, wetter snow on the lower end.

As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Madison experiences some seasonal variation in monthly liquid-equivalent snowfall.

The snowy period of the year lasts for 5.0 months, from November 9 to April 8, with a sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent snowfall of at least 0.1 inches. The most snow falls during the 31 days centered around December 21, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.5 inches.

The snowless period of the year lasts for 7.0 months, from April 8 to November 9. The least snow falls around August 1, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall

The average liquid-equivalent snowfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average rainfall.

Sun

The length of the day in Madison varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2017, the shortest day is December 21, with 8 hours, 60 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 20, with 15 hours, 22 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight

The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 5:17 AM on June 14, and the latest sunrise is 2 hours, 19 minutes later at 7:36 AM on November 4. The earliest sunset is at 4:22 PM on December 9, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 19 minutes later at 8:41 PM on June 26.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Madison during 2017, starting in the spring on March 12, lasting 7.8 months, and ending in the fall on November 5.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in MadisonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJun 145:17 AMJun 145:17 AM8:41 PMJun 268:41 PMJun 26Dec 94:22 PMDec 94:22 PM7:36 AMNov 47:36 AMNov 4Mar 12DSTMar 12DSTDSTNov 5DSTNov 5daynightnightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunset
The solar day over the course of the year 2017. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

Madison experiences significant seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.

The muggier period of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from June 3 to September 18, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 9% of the time. The muggiest day of the year is July 22, with muggy conditions 37% of the time.

The least muggy day of the year is February 24, when muggy conditions are essentially unheard of.

Humidity Comfort Levels

Humidity Comfort Levels in MadisonmuggyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Feb 240%Feb 240%Jul 2237%Jul 2237%Jun 39%Jun 39%Sep 189%Sep 189%muggymuggydrydryhumidhumidcomfortablecomfortableoppressiveoppressive
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point: dry < 55°F < comfortable < 60°F < humid < 65°F < muggy < 70°F < oppressive < 75°F < miserable.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed in Madison experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 7.7 months, from October 1 to May 23, with average wind speeds of more than 10.3 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is March 23, with an average hourly wind speed of 12.5 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 4.3 months, from May 23 to October 1. The calmest day of the year is August 3, with an average hourly wind speed of 8.0 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed

Average Wind Speed in MadisonwindywindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph2 mph4 mph6 mph8 mph10 mph12 mph14 mph16 mph18 mph20 mphMar 2312.5 mphMar 2312.5 mphAug 38.0 mphAug 38.0 mphOct 110.3 mphOct 110.3 mphMay 2310.3 mphMay 2310.3 mph
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction in Madison varies throughout the year.

The wind is most often from the north for 1.8 months, from February 18 to April 13, with a peak percentage of 32% on March 8. The wind is most often from the south for 2.9 months, from April 28 to July 25; for 2.4 months, from August 1 to October 13; and for 2.3 weeks, from October 30 to November 15, with a peak percentage of 38% on September 6. The wind is most often from the west for 1.0 weeks, from July 25 to August 1; for 2.4 weeks, from October 13 to October 30; and for 3.1 months, from November 15 to February 18, with a peak percentage of 32% on October 27.

Wind Direction

Wind Direction in MadisonWNESSWSWJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%westsoutheastnorth
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions (north, east, south, and west), excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Best Time of Year to Visit

To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Madison throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Madison for general outdoor tourist activities is from mid June to early September, with a peak score in the second week of August.

Tourism Score

Tourism Score in Madisonbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec02468106.76.70.00.0 precipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperaturetourism score
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Madison for hot-weather activities is from late June to mid August, with a peak score in the third week of July.

Beach/Pool Score

Beach/Pool Score in Madisonbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec02468105.25.20.00.0 precipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperaturebeach/pool score
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Growing Season

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season in Madison typically lasts for 5.5 months (166 days), from around April 26 to around October 9, rarely starting before April 8 or after May 18, and rarely ending before September 22 or after October 26.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Madisongrowing seasonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Apr 2650%Apr 2650%Oct 950%Oct 950%May 1890%May 1890%Sep 2290%Sep 2290%Apr 810%Apr 810%Oct 2610%Oct 2610%Jul 24100%Jul 24100%frigidfreezingvery coldcoolcomfortablewarmhotcold
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < very cold < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in Madison should appear around April 20, only rarely appearing before April 9 or after May 4.

Growing Degree Days

The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.4 months, from May 6 to August 20, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 5.9 kWh. The brightest day of the year is July 1, with an average of 7.0 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 3.4 months, from October 30 to February 11, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 2.7 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 22, with an average of 1.6 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy

The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Madison are 43.073 deg latitude, -89.401 deg longitude, and 850 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Madison contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 177 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 860 feet. Within 10 miles also contains only modest variations in elevation (390 feet). Within 50 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (1,043 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Madison is covered by water (53%) and artificial surfaces (46%), within 10 miles by cropland (56%) and artificial surfaces (29%), and within 50 miles by cropland (75%) and trees (19%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather in Madison, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

There are 5 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Madison.

For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Madison according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.

The estimated value at Madison is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Madison and a given station.

The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Dane County Regional Airport (82%, 9 kilometers, northeast); Monroe Municipal Airport (5%, 53 kilometers, south); Southern Wisconsin Regional Airport (4.8%, 59 kilometers, southeast); Tri-County Regional Airport (4.1%, 65 kilometers, west); and Iowa County Airport (3.6%, 71 kilometers, west).

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.