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Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Livingston United States

In Livingston, the summers are hot and oppressive, the winters are short and cold, and it is wet and partly cloudy year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 42°F to 94°F and is rarely below 29°F or above 99°F.

Based on the tourism score, the best times of year to visit Livingston for warm-weather activities are from early April to late May and from mid September to late October.

Climate in Livingston

coolcomfortablewarmhotwarmcoolJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecNowNow71%71%51%51%clearovercastprecipitation: 4.6 inprecipitation: 4.6 in2.4 in2.4 inmuggy: 98%muggy: 98%3%3%drydrytourism score: 6.2tourism score: 6.22.52.5
Livingston weather by month. Click on each chart for more information.

The hot season lasts for 3.9 months, from May 26 to September 22, with an average daily high temperature above 87°F. The hottest month of the year in Livingston is August, with an average high of 93°F and low of 73°F.

The cool season lasts for 2.9 months, from November 27 to February 22, with an average daily high temperature below 67°F. The coldest month of the year in Livingston is January, with an average low of 42°F and high of 61°F.

Average High and Low Temperature in Livingston

Average High and Low Temperature in LivingstonhotcoolcoolJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F10°F10°F20°F20°F30°F30°F40°F40°F50°F50°F60°F60°F70°F70°F80°F80°F90°F90°F100°F100°FJan 760°FJan 760°FAug 1094°FAug 1094°F42°F42°F73°F73°FMay 2687°FMay 2687°FSep 2287°FSep 2287°FNov 2767°FNov 2767°FFeb 2267°FFeb 2267°F68°F68°F66°F66°F48°F48°F47°F47°FNowNow
The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.
AverageJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
High 61°F65°F72°F79°F85°F90°F93°F93°F89°F80°F70°F63°F
Temp. 50°F54°F60°F68°F75°F80°F82°F82°F77°F68°F59°F52°F
Low 42°F46°F52°F59°F66°F71°F73°F73°F68°F58°F50°F44°F

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature in Livingston

Average Hourly Temperature in LivingstonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM12 AM2 AM2 AM4 AM4 AM6 AM6 AM8 AM8 AM10 AM10 AM12 PM12 PM2 PM2 PM4 PM4 PM6 PM6 PM8 PM8 PM10 PM10 PM12 AM12 AMNowNowcoldcoldcoldcoldcoolcoolcomfortablewarmwarmhotvery cold
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Meipu, China (7,922 miles away) and Roxby Downs, Australia (9,395 miles) are the far-away foreign places with temperatures most similar to Livingston (view comparison).

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In Livingston, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year in Livingston begins around September 12 and lasts for 2.3 months, ending around November 21.

The clearest month of the year in Livingston is October, during which on average the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 69% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around November 21 and lasts for 9.7 months, ending around September 12.

The cloudiest month of the year in Livingston is January, during which on average the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 47% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories in Livingston

Cloud Cover Categories in LivingstonclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Oct 871%Oct 871%Jan 351%Jan 351%Nov 2161%Nov 2161%NowNowclearmostly clearpartly cloudymostly cloudyovercast
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds.
FractionJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Cloudier 47%47%43%39%39%36%42%42%37%31%37%46%
Clearer 53%53%57%61%61%64%58%58%63%69%63%54%

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Livingston varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 3.8 months, from May 14 to September 6, with a greater than 32% chance of a given day being a wet day. The month with the most wet days in Livingston is June, with an average of 11.3 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.

The drier season lasts 8.2 months, from September 6 to May 14. The month with the fewest wet days in Livingston is October, with an average of 8.0 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. The month with the most days of rain alone in Livingston is June, with an average of 11.3 days. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 40% on June 17.

Daily Chance of Precipitation in Livingston

Daily Chance of Precipitation in LivingstonwetdrydryJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Jun 1740%Jun 1740%Sep 2824%Sep 2824%May 1432%May 1432%NowNowrain
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).
Days ofJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Rain 7.7d7.5d8.1d7.7d10.0d11.3d9.7d9.5d8.5d8.0d7.9d8.2d
Mixed 0.2d0.1d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.1d
Any 8.0d7.6d8.1d7.7d10.0d11.3d9.7d9.5d8.5d8.0d8.0d8.3d

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Livingston experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

Rain falls throughout the year in Livingston. The month with the most rain in Livingston is May, with an average rainfall of 4.5 inches.

The month with the least rain in Livingston is July, with an average rainfall of 2.7 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall in Livingston

Average Monthly Rainfall in LivingstonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in0 in2 in2 in4 in4 in6 in6 in8 in8 in10 in10 in12 in12 inJun 44.6 inJun 44.6 inJul 292.4 inJul 292.4 inOct 304.6 inOct 304.6 inMar 313.2 inMar 313.2 inNowNow
The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average snowfall.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Rainfall 3.6″3.5″3.4″3.4″4.5″4.4″2.7″2.9″3.3″4.4″4.4″4.0″

The length of the day in Livingston varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2024, the shortest day is December 21, with 10 hours, 10 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 20, with 14 hours, 8 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight in Livingston

Hours of Daylight and Twilight in LivingstonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 hr24 hr4 hr20 hr8 hr16 hr12 hr12 hr16 hr8 hr20 hr4 hr24 hr0 hr12 hr, 7 minMar 1912 hr, 7 minMar 1914 hr, 8 minJun 2014 hr, 8 minJun 2012 hr, 9 minSep 2212 hr, 9 minSep 2210 hr, 10 minDec 2110 hr, 10 minDec 21nightnightdayNowNow
The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.
Hours ofJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Daylight 10.4h11.1h12.0h13.0h13.7h14.1h13.9h13.2h12.3h11.4h10.6h10.2h

The earliest sunrise is at 6:16 AM on June 10, and the latest sunrise is 1 hour, 20 minutes later at 7:35 AM on November 2. The earliest sunset is at 5:17 PM on December 1, and the latest sunset is 3 hours, 9 minutes later at 8:26 PM on June 29.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Livingston during 2024, starting in the spring on March 10, lasting 7.8 months, and ending in the fall on November 3.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in Livingston

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in LivingstonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJun 106:16 AMJun 106:16 AM8:26 PMJun 298:26 PMJun 29Dec 15:17 PMDec 15:17 PM7:35 AMNov 27:35 AMNov 2Mar 10DSTMar 10DSTDSTNov 3DSTNov 3daynightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunsetNowNow
The solar day over the course of the year 2024. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

The figure below presents a compact representation of the sun's elevation (the angle of the sun above the horizon) and azimuth (its compass bearing) for every hour of every day in the reporting period. The horizontal axis is the day of the year and the vertical axis is the hour of the day. For a given day and hour of that day, the background color indicates the azimuth of the sun at that moment. The black isolines are contours of constant solar elevation.

Solar Elevation and Azimuth in Livingston

Solar Elevation and Azimuth in LivingstonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM12 AM2 AM2 AM4 AM4 AM6 AM6 AM8 AM8 AM10 AM10 AM12 PM12 PM2 PM2 PM4 PM4 PM6 PM6 PM8 PM8 PM10 PM10 PM12 AM12 AM0001010101020202030303040404050506060708000010101020202020303030404040505050606070708036NowNow
northeastsouthwest
Solar elevation and azimuth over the course of the year 2024. The black lines are lines of constant solar elevation (the angle of the sun above the horizon, in degrees). The background color fills indicate the azimuth (the compass bearing) of the sun. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries of the cardinal compass points indicate the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2024. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.

Moon Rise, Set & Phases in Livingston

The time in which the moon is above the horizon (light blue area), with new moons (dark gray lines) and full moons (blue lines) indicated. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

Livingston experiences extreme seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.

The muggier period of the year lasts for 6.3 months, from April 14 to October 24, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 27% of the time. The month with the most muggy days in Livingston is July, with 30.2 days that are muggy or worse.

The month with the fewest muggy days in Livingston is January, with 1.2 days that are muggy or worse.

Humidity Comfort Levels in Livingston

Humidity Comfort Levels in LivingstonmuggyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Jan 233%Jan 233%98%Jul 2298%Jul 22Apr 1427%Apr 1427%Oct 2427%Oct 2427%NowNowmiserablemiserableoppressiveoppressivedrydrymuggymuggy
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Muggy days 1.2d1.3d3.4d8.6d19.5d27.4d30.2d28.9d21.0d10.4d4.7d2.3d

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed in Livingston experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 7.4 months, from October 17 to May 31, with average wind speeds of more than 4.3 miles per hour. The windiest month of the year in Livingston is March, with an average hourly wind speed of 5.0 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 4.6 months, from May 31 to October 17. The calmest month of the year in Livingston is August, with an average hourly wind speed of 3.4 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed in Livingston

Average Wind Speed in LivingstonwindywindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph0 mph1 mph1 mph2 mph2 mph3 mph3 mph4 mph4 mph5 mph5 mph6 mph6 mph7 mph7 mph8 mph8 mphApr 15.1 mphApr 15.1 mphAug 153.4 mphAug 153.4 mphOct 174.3 mphOct 174.3 mphMay 314.3 mphMay 314.3 mphNowNow
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Wind Speed (mph) 4.74.95.05.04.63.93.63.43.74.24.64.7

The predominant average hourly wind direction in Livingston varies throughout the year.

The wind is most often from the south for 10 months, from February 1 to December 9, with a peak percentage of 69% on June 26. The wind is most often from the north for 1.7 months, from December 9 to February 1, with a peak percentage of 37% on January 1.

Wind Direction in Livingston

Wind Direction in LivingstonNSNJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%NowNowsoutheastnorthwest
northeastsouthwest
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions, excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1.0 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Livingston throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best times of year to visit Livingston for general outdoor tourist activities are from early April to late May and from mid September to late October, with a peak score in the last week of April.

Tourism Score in Livingston

Tourism Score in Livingstonbest timebest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810106.26.22.52.56.16.14.64.6NowNowtemperaturetemperature cloudscloudsprecipitationprecipitationtourism score
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Livingston for hot-weather activities is from mid May to late September, with a peak score in the first week of June.

Beach/Pool Score in Livingston

Beach/Pool Score in Livingstonbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810106.06.00.70.75.75.7NowNowtemperaturetemperature cloudscloudsprecipitationprecipitationbeach/pool score
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season in Livingston typically lasts for 9.0 months (272 days), from around February 26 to around November 25, rarely starting before January 30 or after March 21, and rarely ending before November 2 or after December 18.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Livingston

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Livingstongrowing seasonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%50%Feb 2650%Feb 2650%Nov 2550%Nov 2590%Mar 2190%Mar 2190%Nov 290%Nov 210%Jan 3010%Jan 3010%Dec 1810%Dec 181%Jan 91%Jan 9Jul 11100%Jul 11100%NowNowvery coldcoldcoolcomfortablewarmhotsweltering
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in Livingston should appear around January 19, only rarely appearing before January 11 or after February 2.

Growing Degree Days in Livingston

Growing Degree Days in LivingstonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F1,000°F1,000°F2,000°F2,000°F3,000°F3,000°F4,000°F4,000°F5,000°F5,000°F6,000°F6,000°FJan 1990°FJan 1990°FApr 11900°FApr 11900°FMay 231,800°FMay 231,800°FDec 316,638°FDec 316,638°FNowNow
The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 4.4 months, from April 5 to August 18, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 5.9 kWh. The brightest month of the year in Livingston is June, with an average of 6.5 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 2.6 months, from November 13 to February 3, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 3.6 kWh. The darkest month of the year in Livingston is December, with an average of 2.9 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in Livingston

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in LivingstonbrightdarkdarkJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 kWh0 kWh1 kWh1 kWh2 kWh2 kWh3 kWh3 kWh4 kWh4 kWh5 kWh5 kWh6 kWh6 kWh7 kWh7 kWh8 kWh8 kWh9 kWh9 kWhJun 26.6 kWhJun 26.6 kWhDec 232.8 kWhDec 232.8 kWhApr 55.9 kWhApr 55.9 kWhAug 185.9 kWhAug 185.9 kWhFeb 33.6 kWhFeb 33.6 kWhNowNow
The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Solar Energy (kWh) 3.24.05.16.16.46.56.35.95.44.63.52.9

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Livingston are 30.711 deg latitude, -94.933 deg longitude, and 167 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Livingston contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 246 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 191 feet. Within 10 miles also contains only modest variations in elevation (397 feet). Within 50 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (502 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Livingston is covered by artificial surfaces (33%), trees (26%), herbaceous vegetation (25%), and cropland (16%), within 10 miles by trees (50%) and herbaceous vegetation (24%), and within 50 miles by trees (49%) and herbaceous vegetation (27%).

This report illustrates the typical weather in Livingston, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

There are 6 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Livingston.

For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Livingston according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.

The estimated value at Livingston is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Livingston and a given station.

The stations contributing to this reconstruction are:

To get a sense of how much these sources agree with each other, you can view a comparison of Livingston and the stations that contribute to our estimates of its temperature history and climate. Please note that each source's contribution is adjusted for elevation and the relative change present in the MERRA-2 data.

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © OpenStreetMap contributors.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.

Please review our full terms contained on our Terms of Service page.