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Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Mäntsälä Finland

In Mäntsälä, the summers are comfortable and partly cloudy and the winters are long, freezing, snowy, and overcast. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 14°F to 72°F and is rarely below -9°F or above 82°F.

Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Mäntsälä for warm-weather activities is from late June to mid August.

Climate in Mäntsälä

freezingvery coldcoldcoolcomfortablecoolcoldvery coldfreezingJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecNowNow58%58%20%20%overcastclearprecipitation: 2.2 inprecipitation: 2.2 in0.9 in0.9 inmuggy: 1%muggy: 1%0%0%drydrytourism score: 6.7tourism score: 6.70.00.0
Mäntsälä weather by month. Click on each chart for more information.

Average Temperature in Mäntsälä

The warm season lasts for 3.3 months, from May 25 to September 2, with an average daily high temperature above 63°F. The hottest day of the year is July 22, with an average high of 72°F and low of 54°F.

The cold season lasts for 3.9 months, from November 21 to March 16, with an average daily high temperature below 34°F. The coldest day of the year is February 7, with an average low of 14°F and high of 25°F.

Average High and Low Temperature in Mäntsälä

Average High and Low Temperature in MäntsäläwarmcoldcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec-10°F-10°F0°F0°F10°F10°F20°F20°F30°F30°F40°F40°F50°F50°F60°F60°F70°F70°F80°F80°F90°F90°F100°F100°FFeb 725°FFeb 725°FJul 2272°FJul 2272°F14°F14°F54°F54°FMay 2563°FMay 2563°FSep 263°FSep 263°FNov 2134°FNov 2134°FMar 1634°FMar 1634°F42°F42°F47°F47°F26°F26°F21°F21°FNowNow
The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature in Mäntsälä

Average Hourly Temperature in MäntsäläJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM12 AM4 AM4 AM8 AM8 AM12 PM12 PM4 PM4 PM8 PM8 PM12 AM12 AMNowNowfreezingfreezingvery coldvery coldcoldcoldcoolcomfortable
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Smithers, Canada (4,326 miles away); Laurium, Michigan, United States (4,124 miles); and Pasadena, Canada (3,166 miles) are the far-away foreign places with temperatures most similar to Mäntsälä (view comparison).

Compare Mäntsälä to another city:

Clouds

In Mäntsälä, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year in Mäntsälä begins around April 21 and lasts for 5.3 months, ending around September 30. On July 18, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 58% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 42% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around September 30 and lasts for 6.7 months, ending around April 21. On January 28, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 80% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 20% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories in Mäntsälä

Cloud Cover Categories in MäntsäläclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Jul 1858%Jul 1858%Jan 2820%Jan 2820%Apr 2139%Apr 2139%Sep 3040%Sep 3040%NowNowclearmostly clearpartly cloudymostly cloudyovercast
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds.

Precipitation

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Mäntsälä varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 7.9 months, from May 30 to January 26, with a greater than 23% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 31% on November 9.

The drier season lasts 4.1 months, from January 26 to May 30. The smallest chance of a wet day is 16% on February 26.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation in Mäntsälä changes throughout the year.

Rain alone is the most common for 9.1 months, from March 15 to December 18. The highest chance of a day with rain alone is 30% on August 14.

Snow alone is the most common for 2.9 months, from December 18 to March 15. The highest chance of a day with snow alone is 13% on January 22.

Daily Chance of Precipitation in Mäntsälä

Daily Chance of Precipitation in MäntsäläsnowrainJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Nov 931%Nov 931%Feb 2616%Feb 2616%Dec 1828%Dec 1828%May 3023%May 3023%Jan 2623%Jan 2623%NowNowsnowrainmixed
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Mäntsälä experiences some seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

The rainy period of the year lasts for 10 months, from March 13 to January 16, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around August 9, with an average total accumulation of 2.2 inches.

The rainless period of the year lasts for 1.9 months, from January 16 to March 13. The least rain falls around February 14, with an average total accumulation of 0.4 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall in Mäntsälä

Average Monthly Rainfall in MäntsälärainJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in0 in1 in1 in2 in2 in3 in3 in4 in4 in5 in5 inAug 92.2 inAug 92.2 inFeb 140.4 inFeb 140.4 inJun 202.1 inJun 202.1 inOct 82.0 inOct 82.0 inNowNow
The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Snowfall

We report snowfall in liquid-equivalent terms. The actual depth of new snowfall is typically between 5 and 10 times the liquid-equivalent amount, assuming the ground is frozen. Colder, drier snow tends to be on the higher end of that range and warmer, wetter snow on the lower end.

As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Mäntsälä experiences some seasonal variation in monthly liquid-equivalent snowfall.

The snowy period of the year lasts for 6.2 months, from October 15 to April 22, with a sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent snowfall of at least 0.1 inches. The most snow falls during the 31 days centered around January 23, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.7 inches.

The snowless period of the year lasts for 5.8 months, from April 22 to October 15. The least snow falls around July 28, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall in Mäntsälä

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall in MäntsäläsnowsnowJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0.0 in0.0 in0.5 in0.5 in1.0 in1.0 in1.5 in1.5 in2.0 in2.0 inJan 230.7 inJan 230.7 inJul 280.0 inJul 280.0 inOct 150.1 inOct 150.1 inApr 220.1 inApr 220.1 in
The average liquid-equivalent snowfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average rainfall.

Sun

The length of the day in Mäntsälä varies extremely over the course of the year. In 2021, the shortest day is December 21, with 5 hours, 40 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 19 hours, 7 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight in Mäntsälä

Hours of Daylight and Twilight in MäntsäläJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 hr24 hr4 hr20 hr8 hr16 hr12 hr12 hr16 hr8 hr20 hr4 hr24 hr0 hr12 hr, 8 minMar 2012 hr, 8 minMar 2019 hr, 7 minJun 2119 hr, 7 minJun 2112 hr, 16 minSep 2212 hr, 16 minSep 225 hr, 40 minDec 215 hr, 40 minDec 21nightnightdayNowNow
The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 3:46 AM on June 19, and the latest sunrise is 5 hours, 42 minutes later at 9:28 AM on December 26. The earliest sunset is at 3:05 PM on December 16, and the latest sunset is 7 hours, 49 minutes later at 10:54 PM on June 23.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Mäntsälä during 2021, starting in the spring on March 28, lasting 7.1 months, and ending in the fall on October 31.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in Mäntsälä

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in MäntsäläJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJun 193:46 AMJun 193:46 AM10:54 PMJun 2310:54 PMJun 23Dec 163:05 PMDec 163:05 PM9:28 AMDec 269:28 AMDec 26Mar 28DSTMar 28DSTDSTOct 31DSTOct 31daynightnightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunsetNowNow
The solar day over the course of the year 2021. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

Moon

The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2021. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.

Moon Rise, Set & Phases in Mäntsälä

The time in which the moon is above the horizon (light blue area), with new moons (dark gray lines) and full moons (blue lines) indicated. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

The perceived humidity level in Mäntsälä, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, staying within 1% of 1% throughout.

Humidity Comfort Levels in Mäntsälä

Humidity Comfort Levels in MäntsäläJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Mar 150%Mar 150%Jul 291%Jul 291%NowNowdrydrycomfortablecomfortablehumidhumid
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed in Mäntsälä experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 6.8 months, from September 22 to April 17, with average wind speeds of more than 5.6 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is December 14, with an average hourly wind speed of 6.5 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 5.2 months, from April 17 to September 22. The calmest day of the year is July 21, with an average hourly wind speed of 4.7 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed in Mäntsälä

Average Wind Speed in MäntsäläwindywindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph0 mph1 mph1 mph2 mph2 mph3 mph3 mph4 mph4 mph5 mph5 mph6 mph6 mph7 mph7 mph8 mph8 mph9 mph9 mph10 mph10 mphDec 146.5 mphDec 146.5 mphJul 214.7 mphJul 214.7 mphSep 225.6 mphSep 225.6 mphApr 175.6 mphApr 175.6 mphNowNow
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction in Mäntsälä varies throughout the year.

The wind is most often from the south for 3.8 months, from January 24 to May 17 and for 6.0 months, from June 28 to December 29, with a peak percentage of 36% on November 11. The wind is most often from the west for 1.4 months, from May 17 to June 28 and for 3.7 weeks, from December 29 to January 24, with a peak percentage of 32% on June 4.

Wind Direction in Mäntsälä

Wind Direction in MäntsäläWSWSJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%NowNowwestsouthnortheast
northeastsouthwest
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions, excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1.0 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Water Temperature

Mäntsälä is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 2.5 months, from July 1 to September 17, with an average temperature above 57°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 7, with an average temperature of 63°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 4.6 months, from December 14 to May 1, with an average temperature below 38°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is March 1, with an average temperature of 32°F.

Average Water Temperature in Mäntsälä

The daily average water temperature (purple line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Best Time of Year to Visit

To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Mäntsälä throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Mäntsälä for general outdoor tourist activities is from late June to mid August, with a peak score in the third week of July.

Tourism Score in Mäntsälä

Tourism Score in Mäntsäläbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810106.76.70.00.0NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperature tourism score
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Mäntsälä for hot-weather activities is from mid July to early August, with a peak score in the third week of July.

Beach/Pool Score in Mäntsälä

Beach/Pool Score in MäntsäläJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810103.23.20.00.0NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperature
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Growing Season

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season in Mäntsälä typically lasts for 4.4 months (135 days), from around May 12 to around September 23, rarely starting before April 23 or after May 29, and rarely ending before September 6 or after October 12.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Mäntsälä

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Mäntsälägrowing seasonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%May 1250%May 1250%Sep 2350%Sep 2350%May 2990%May 2990%Sep 690%Sep 690%Apr 2310%Apr 2310%Oct 1210%Oct 1210%0%Dec 50%Dec 5Jul 16100%Jul 16100%NowNowfrigidfreezingvery coldcoldcoolcomfortablewarm
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in Mäntsälä should appear around May 16, only rarely appearing before May 7 or after May 29.

Growing Degree Days in Mäntsälä

Growing Degree Days in MäntsäläJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F200°F200°F400°F400°F600°F600°F800°F800°F1,000°F1,000°F1,200°F1,200°F1,400°F1,400°F1,600°F1,600°FMay 1690°FMay 1690°FAug 1900°FAug 1900°FDec 311,330°FDec 311,330°FNowNow
The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.2 months, from May 5 to August 10, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 4.9 kWh. The brightest day of the year is July 2, with an average of 6.1 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 4.5 months, from October 13 to February 27, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 1.3 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 21, with an average of 0.1 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in Mäntsälä

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in MäntsäläbrightdarkdarkJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 kWh0 kWh1 kWh1 kWh2 kWh2 kWh3 kWh3 kWh4 kWh4 kWh5 kWh5 kWh6 kWh6 kWh7 kWh7 kWh8 kWh8 kWh9 kWh9 kWhJul 26.1 kWhJul 26.1 kWhDec 210.1 kWhDec 210.1 kWhMay 54.9 kWhMay 54.9 kWhAug 104.9 kWhAug 104.9 kWhOct 131.3 kWhOct 131.3 kWhFeb 271.3 kWhFeb 271.3 kWhNowNow
The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Mäntsälä are 60.633 deg latitude, 25.317 deg longitude, and 210 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Mäntsälä contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 131 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 258 feet. Within 10 miles also contains only modest variations in elevation (338 feet). Within 50 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (735 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Mäntsälä is covered by trees (37%), artificial surfaces (37%), and cropland (26%), within 10 miles by trees (62%) and cropland (32%), and within 50 miles by trees (51%) and water (23%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather in Mäntsälä, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

There are 4 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Mäntsälä.

For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Mäntsälä according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.

The estimated value at Mäntsälä is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Mäntsälä and a given station.

The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Helsinki-Vantaa Airport (EFHK, 62%, 40 kilometers, southwest); Utti Airport (EFUT, 18%, 93 kilometers, east); Tampere–Pirkkala Airport (EFTP, 11%, 127 kilometers, northwest); and Halli Airport (EFHA, 10%, 139 kilometers, north).

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.