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Average Weather in Rotonda Italy

In Rotonda, the summers are short, warm, dry, and mostly clear and the winters are long, cold, wet, and partly cloudy. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 39°F to 82°F and is rarely below 32°F or above 90°F.

Temperature

The warm season lasts for 2.9 months, from June 15 to September 10, with an average daily high temperature above 76°F. The hottest day of the year is August 5, with an average high of 82°F and low of 68°F.

The cool season lasts for 4.0 months, from November 23 to March 24, with an average daily high temperature below 56°F. The coldest day of the year is February 6, with an average low of 39°F and high of 49°F.

Average High and Low Temperature

The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature

Average Hourly Temperature in RotondaJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM4 AM8 AM12 PM4 PM8 PM12 AMcomfortablecoldcoolwarmvery cold
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < very cold < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Clouds

In Rotonda, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year in Rotonda begins around June 8 and lasts for 3.1 months, ending around September 11. On July 21, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 93% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 7% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around September 11 and lasts for 8.9 months, ending around June 8. On January 14, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 51% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 49% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories

Cloud Cover Categories in RotondaclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Jul 2193%Jul 2193%Jan 1449%Jan 1449%Jun 871%Jun 871%Sep 1171%Sep 1171%clearovercastmostly clearpartly cloudymostly cloudy
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds: clear < 20% < mostly clear < 40% < partly cloudy < 60% < mostly cloudy < 80% < overcast.

Precipitation

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Rotonda varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 7.5 months, from September 21 to May 3, with a greater than 22% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 36% on November 21.

The drier season lasts 4.6 months, from May 3 to September 21. The smallest chance of a wet day is 8% on July 5.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 35% on November 21.

Daily Chance of Precipitation

Daily Chance of Precipitation in RotondawetwetdryJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Nov 2136%Nov 2136%Jul 58%Jul 58%Jan 129%Jan 129%Sep 2122%Sep 2122%May 322%May 322%rain
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Rotonda experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

Rain falls throughout the year in Rotonda. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around November 27, with an average total accumulation of 3.4 inches.

The least rain falls around July 6, with an average total accumulation of 0.6 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall

Average Monthly Rainfall in RotondaJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in1 in2 in3 in4 in5 in6 in7 in8 inNov 273.4 inNov 273.4 inJul 60.6 inJul 60.6 inFeb 102.9 inFeb 102.9 in
The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Sun

The length of the day in Rotonda varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2017, the shortest day is December 21, with 9 hours, 20 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 15 hours, 1 minute of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight

The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 5:26 AM on June 14, and the latest sunrise is 1 hour, 54 minutes later at 7:20 AM on October 28. The earliest sunset is at 4:30 PM on December 6, and the latest sunset is 3 hours, 58 minutes later at 8:28 PM on June 28.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Rotonda during 2017, starting in the spring on March 26, lasting 7.1 months, and ending in the fall on October 29.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in RotondaJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJun 145:26 AMJun 145:26 AM8:28 PMJun 288:28 PMJun 28Dec 64:30 PMDec 64:30 PM7:20 AMOct 287:20 AMOct 28Mar 26DSTMar 26DSTDSTOct 29DSTOct 29daynightnightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunset
The solar day over the course of the year 2017. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

Rotonda experiences some seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.

The muggier period of the year lasts for 2.9 months, from June 14 to September 10, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 3% of the time. The muggiest day of the year is August 7, with muggy conditions 12% of the time.

The least muggy day of the year is February 24, when muggy conditions are essentially unheard of.

Humidity Comfort Levels

Humidity Comfort Levels in RotondamuggyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Feb 240%Feb 240%Aug 712%Aug 712%Jun 143%Jun 143%Sep 103%Sep 103%drydryhumidhumidmuggymuggycomfortablecomfortable
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point: dry < 55°F < comfortable < 60°F < humid < 65°F < muggy < 70°F < oppressive < 75°F < miserable.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed in Rotonda experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 5.9 months, from October 30 to April 25, with average wind speeds of more than 6.8 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is February 21, with an average hourly wind speed of 8.5 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 6.1 months, from April 25 to October 30. The calmest day of the year is August 6, with an average hourly wind speed of 5.1 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed

The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction in Rotonda is from the west throughout the year.

Wind Direction

Wind Direction in RotondaJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%northwestsoutheast
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions (north, east, south, and west), excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Water Temperature

Rotonda is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 2.9 months, from June 30 to September 26, with an average temperature above 75°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 13, with an average temperature of 80°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 4.4 months, from December 15 to April 28, with an average temperature below 62°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is February 23, with an average temperature of 57°F.

Average Water Temperature

The daily average water temperature (purple line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.2 months, from May 11 to August 18, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 6.6 kWh. The brightest day of the year is July 6, with an average of 7.8 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 3.6 months, from October 30 to February 15, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 3.0 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 20, with an average of 1.8 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy

The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Rotonda are 39.952 deg latitude, 16.039 deg longitude, and 1,742 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Rotonda contains very significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 1,686 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 1,721 feet. Within 10 miles contains very significant variations in elevation (7,008 feet). Within 50 miles also contains extreme variations in elevation (7,405 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Rotonda is covered by cropland (50%) and trees (47%), within 10 miles by trees (64%) and cropland (18%), and within 50 miles by water (34%) and trees (30%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather in Rotonda, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

There are 3 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Rotonda.

For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Rotonda according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.

The estimated value at Rotonda is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Rotonda and a given station.

The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Capo Palinuro (51%, 65 kilometers, west); Monte Scuro (19%, 76 kilometers, southeast); and Marina Di Ginosa (30%, 90 kilometers, northeast).

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.