Climate and Average Weather Year Round in London United Kingdom
In London, the summers are short, comfortable, and partly cloudy and the winters are long, very cold, windy, and mostly cloudy. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 39°F to 74°F and is rarely below 30°F or above 84°F.
Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit London for warm-weather activities is from late June to early September.
Climate in London
The warm season lasts for 2.8 months, from June 15 to September 7, with an average daily high temperature above 69°F. The hottest month of the year in London is July, with an average high of 73°F and low of 59°F.
The cool season lasts for 4.0 months, from November 16 to March 18, with an average daily high temperature below 53°F. The coldest month of the year in London is February, with an average low of 39°F and high of 48°F.
Average High and Low Temperature in London
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature in London
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
In London, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in London begins around April 2 and lasts for 6.5 months, ending around October 20.
The clearest month of the year in London is July, during which on average the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 57% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around October 20 and lasts for 5.4 months, ending around April 2.
The cloudiest month of the year in London is December, during which on average the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 72% of the time.
Cloud Cover Categories in London
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in London varies throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 8.3 months, from May 27 to February 5, with a greater than 26% chance of a given day being a wet day. The month with the most wet days in London is November, with an average of 9.2 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
The drier season lasts 3.7 months, from February 5 to May 27. The month with the fewest wet days in London is April, with an average of 6.5 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. The month with the most days of rain alone in London is November, with an average of 9.2 days. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 32% on December 30.
Daily Chance of Precipitation in London
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. London experiences some seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
Rain falls throughout the year in London. The month with the most rain in London is October, with an average rainfall of 2.2 inches.
The month with the least rain in London is March, with an average rainfall of 1.2 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall in London
The length of the day in London varies extremely over the course of the year. In 2023, the shortest day is December 22, with 7 hours, 50 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 16 hours, 39 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight in London
The earliest sunrise is at 4:42 AM on June 17, and the latest sunrise is 3 hours, 24 minutes later at 8:06 AM on December 30. The earliest sunset is at 3:51 PM on December 13, and the latest sunset is 5 hours, 31 minutes later at 9:21 PM on June 25.
Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in London during 2023, starting in the spring on March 26, lasting 7.1 months, and ending in the fall on October 29.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in London
The figure below presents a compact representation of the sun's elevation (the angle of the sun above the horizon) and azimuth (its compass bearing) for every hour of every day in the reporting period. The horizontal axis is the day of the year and the vertical axis is the hour of the day. For a given day and hour of that day, the background color indicates the azimuth of the sun at that moment. The black isolines are contours of constant solar elevation.
Solar Elevation and Azimuth in London
The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2023. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.
Moon Rise, Set & Phases in London
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
The perceived humidity level in London, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, remaining a virtually constant 0% throughout.
Humidity Comfort Levels in London
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in London experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 5.8 months, from October 13 to April 5, with average wind speeds of more than 11.5 miles per hour. The windiest month of the year in London is January, with an average hourly wind speed of 13.1 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 6.2 months, from April 5 to October 13. The calmest month of the year in London is July, with an average hourly wind speed of 9.8 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed in London
The predominant average hourly wind direction in London varies throughout the year.
The wind is most often from the north for 3.7 weeks, from April 16 to May 12, with a peak percentage of 28% on April 19. The wind is most often from the west for 11 months, from May 12 to April 16, with a peak percentage of 40% on January 1.
Wind Direction in London
To characterize how pleasant the weather is in London throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.
The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit London for general outdoor tourist activities is from late June to early September, with a peak score in the last week of July.
Tourism Score in London
The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit London for hot-weather activities is from mid July to mid August, with a peak score in the last week of July.
Beach/Pool Score in London
For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.
Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.
Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.
Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.
Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
The growing season in London typically lasts for 9.8 months (297 days), from around February 22 to around December 16, rarely starting after March 27, or ending before November 14.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in London
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in London should appear around April 9, only rarely appearing before March 21 or after April 28.
Growing Degree Days in London
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from May 2 to August 18, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 5.3 kWh. The brightest month of the year in London is June, with an average of 6.3 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 3.8 months, from October 26 to February 19, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 1.8 kWh. The darkest month of the year in London is December, with an average of 0.7 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in London
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of London are 51.509 deg latitude, -0.126 deg longitude, and 82 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of London contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 164 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 70 feet. Within 10 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (492 feet). Within 50 miles contains significant variations in elevation (1,027 feet).
The area within 2 miles of London is covered by artificial surfaces (96%), within 10 miles by artificial surfaces (97%), and within 50 miles by cropland (40%) and grassland (26%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in London, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There are 2 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in London.
For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and London according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
The estimated value at London is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between London and a given station.
The stations contributing to this reconstruction are:
To get a sense of how much these sources agree with each other, you can view a comparison of London and the stations that contribute to our estimates of its temperature history and climate. Please note that each source's contribution is adjusted for elevation and the relative change present in the MERRA-2 data.
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © OpenStreetMap contributors.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.
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