Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Dakar Senegal
In Dakar, the summers are long, hot, oppressive, and overcast and the winters are long, comfortable, dry, windy, and partly cloudy. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 65°F to 88°F and is rarely below 61°F or above 92°F.
Based on the beach/pool score, the best time of year to visit Dakar for hot-weather activities is from late April to late June.
Climate in Dakar
The hot season lasts for 4.0 months, from July 14 to November 15, with an average daily high temperature above 86°F. The hottest month of the year in Dakar is October, with an average high of 88°F and low of 77°F.
The cool season lasts for 4.5 months, from January 1 to May 16, with an average daily high temperature below 80°F. The coldest month of the year in Dakar is February, with an average low of 65°F and high of 78°F.
Average High and Low Temperature in Dakar
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature in Dakar
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
In Dakar, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in Dakar begins around December 1 and lasts for 7.4 months, ending around July 13.
The clearest month of the year in Dakar is May, during which on average the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 70% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around July 13 and lasts for 4.6 months, ending around December 1.
The cloudiest month of the year in Dakar is September, during which on average the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 78% of the time.
Cloud Cover Categories in Dakar
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Dakar varies very significantly throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 2.5 months, from July 19 to October 3, with a greater than 30% chance of a given day being a wet day. The month with the most wet days in Dakar is August, with an average of 16.2 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
The drier season lasts 9.5 months, from October 3 to July 19. The month with the fewest wet days in Dakar is April, with an average of 0.2 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. The month with the most days of rain alone in Dakar is August, with an average of 16.2 days. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 59% on August 30.
Daily Chance of Precipitation in Dakar
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Dakar experiences extreme seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
The rainy period of the year lasts for 4.2 months, from June 23 to October 31, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. The month with the most rain in Dakar is August, with an average rainfall of 4.7 inches.
The rainless period of the year lasts for 7.8 months, from October 31 to June 23. The month with the least rain in Dakar is April, with an average rainfall of 0.0 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall in Dakar
The length of the day in Dakar varies over the course of the year. In 2023, the shortest day is December 22, with 11 hours, 16 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 13 hours, 0 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight in Dakar
The earliest sunrise is at 6:39 AM on June 2, and the latest sunrise is 1 hour, 0 minutes later at 7:39 AM on January 22. The earliest sunset is at 6:37 PM on November 21, and the latest sunset is 1 hour, 6 minutes later at 7:43 PM on July 9.
Daylight saving time (DST) is not observed in Dakar during 2023.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight in Dakar
The figure below presents a compact representation of the sun's elevation (the angle of the sun above the horizon) and azimuth (its compass bearing) for every hour of every day in the reporting period. The horizontal axis is the day of the year and the vertical axis is the hour of the day. For a given day and hour of that day, the background color indicates the azimuth of the sun at that moment. The black isolines are contours of constant solar elevation.
Solar Elevation and Azimuth in Dakar
The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2023. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.
Moon Rise, Set & Phases in Dakar
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
Dakar experiences extreme seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.
The muggier period of the year lasts for 8.6 months, from March 30 to December 19, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 30% of the time. The month with the most muggy days in Dakar is August, with 31.0 days that are muggy or worse.
The month with the fewest muggy days in Dakar is February, with 2.6 days that are muggy or worse.
Humidity Comfort Levels in Dakar
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Dakar experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 6.8 months, from November 9 to June 3, with average wind speeds of more than 11.1 miles per hour. The windiest month of the year in Dakar is April, with an average hourly wind speed of 13.9 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 5.2 months, from June 3 to November 9. The calmest month of the year in Dakar is September, with an average hourly wind speed of 8.5 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed in Dakar
The predominant average hourly wind direction in Dakar varies throughout the year.
The wind is most often from the west for 3.3 months, from June 9 to September 19, with a peak percentage of 67% on July 8. The wind is most often from the north for 8.7 months, from September 19 to June 9, with a peak percentage of 71% on January 1.
Wind Direction in Dakar
Dakar is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.
The average water temperature experiences some seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The time of year with warmer water lasts for 4.3 months, from July 5 to November 16, with an average temperature above 80°F. The month of the year in Dakar with the warmest water is September, with an average temperature of 83°F.
The time of year with cooler water lasts for 3.8 months, from January 11 to May 5, with an average temperature below 70°F. The month of the year in Dakar with the coolest water is February, with an average temperature of 67°F.
Average Water Temperature in Dakar
To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Dakar throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.
The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Dakar for general outdoor tourist activities is from mid January to late May, with a peak score in the first week of May.
Tourism Score in Dakar
The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Dakar for hot-weather activities is from late April to late June, with a peak score in the last week of May.
Beach/Pool Score in Dakar
For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.
Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.
Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.
Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.
Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
Temperatures in Dakar are sufficiently warm year round that it is not entirely meaningful to discuss the growing season in these terms. We nevertheless include the chart below as an illustration of the distribution of temperatures experienced throughout the year.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Dakar
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
Growing Degree Days in Dakar
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences some seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.1 months, from March 11 to June 14, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 6.6 kWh. The brightest month of the year in Dakar is April, with an average of 7.2 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 2.4 months, from August 11 to October 24, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 5.0 kWh. The darkest month of the year in Dakar is September, with an average of 4.5 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in Dakar
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Dakar are 14.694 deg latitude, -17.444 deg longitude, and 39 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Dakar contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 157 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 36 feet. Within 10 miles also contains only modest variations in elevation (325 feet). Within 50 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (515 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Dakar is covered by artificial surfaces (71%) and water (21%), within 10 miles by water (81%) and artificial surfaces (14%), and within 50 miles by water (81%) and cropland (11%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Dakar, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There are 3 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Dakar.
For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Dakar according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
The estimated value at Dakar is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Dakar and a given station.
The stations contributing to this reconstruction are:
To get a sense of how much these sources agree with each other, you can view a comparison of Dakar and the stations that contribute to our estimates of its temperature history and climate. Please note that each source's contribution is adjusted for elevation and the relative change present in the MERRA-2 data.
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © OpenStreetMap contributors.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.
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