Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Grytviken South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands
In Grytviken, the summers are short and very cold; the winters are long, freezing, and snowy; and it is extremely windy and overcast year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 26°F to 40°F and is rarely below 19°F or above 43°F.
Climate in Grytviken
The warm season lasts for 3.0 months, from December 30 to March 29, with an average daily high temperature above 38°F. The hottest month of the year in Grytviken is February, with an average high of 40°F and low of 36°F.
The cold season lasts for 4.2 months, from June 4 to October 12, with an average daily high temperature below 33°F. The coldest month of the year in Grytviken is August, with an average low of 26°F and high of 31°F.
Average High and Low Temperature in Grytviken
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature in Grytviken
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
In Grytviken, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in Grytviken begins around October 1 and lasts for 6.0 months, ending around April 3.
The clearest month of the year in Grytviken is December, during which on average the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 36% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around April 3 and lasts for 6.0 months, ending around October 1.
The cloudiest month of the year in Grytviken is July, during which on average the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 78% of the time.
Cloud Cover Categories in Grytviken
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Grytviken varies throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 5.9 months, from November 16 to May 14, with a greater than 33% chance of a given day being a wet day. The month with the most wet days in Grytviken is February, with an average of 11.8 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
The drier season lasts 6.1 months, from May 14 to November 16. The month with the fewest wet days in Grytviken is October, with an average of 7.7 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation in Grytviken changes throughout the year.
Rain alone is the most common for 10 months, from August 22 to August 28 and from September 21 to July 26. The month with the most days of rain alone in Grytviken is February, with an average of 11.7 days.
Mixed snow and rain is the most common for 1.5 months, from July 26 to August 22 and from September 3 to September 21. The month with the most days of mixed snow and rain in Grytviken is August, with an average of 2.8 days.
Snow alone is the most common for 6.0 days, from August 28 to September 3. The month with the most days of snow alone in Grytviken is August, with an average of 2.5 days.
Daily Chance of Precipitation in Grytviken
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Grytviken experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
Rain falls throughout the year in Grytviken. The month with the most rain in Grytviken is February, with an average rainfall of 2.8 inches.
The month with the least rain in Grytviken is August, with an average rainfall of 0.7 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall in Grytviken
As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Grytviken experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly snowfall.
The snowy period of the year lasts for 7.3 months, from April 22 to November 30, with a sliding 31-day snowfall of at least 1.0 inches. The month with the most snow in Grytviken is September, with an average snowfall of 6.1 inches.
The snowless period of the year lasts for 4.7 months, from November 30 to April 22. The least snow falls around February 8, with an average total accumulation of 0.0 inches.
Average Monthly Snowfall in Grytviken
The length of the day in Grytviken varies extremely over the course of the year. In 2023, the shortest day is June 21, with 7 hours, 19 minutes of daylight; the longest day is December 22, with 17 hours, 13 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight in Grytviken
The earliest sunrise is at 3:46 AM on December 15, and the latest sunrise is 5 hours, 3 minutes later at 8:48 AM on June 24. The earliest sunset is at 4:06 PM on June 17, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 56 minutes later at 9:02 PM on December 29.
Daylight saving time (DST) is not observed in Grytviken during 2023.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight in Grytviken
The figure below presents a compact representation of the sun's elevation (the angle of the sun above the horizon) and azimuth (its compass bearing) for every hour of every day in the reporting period. The horizontal axis is the day of the year and the vertical axis is the hour of the day. For a given day and hour of that day, the background color indicates the azimuth of the sun at that moment. The black isolines are contours of constant solar elevation.
Solar Elevation and Azimuth in Grytviken
The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2023. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.
Moon Rise, Set & Phases in Grytviken
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
The perceived humidity level in Grytviken, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, remaining a virtually constant 0% throughout.
Humidity Comfort Levels in Grytviken
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Grytviken experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 4.7 months, from June 13 to November 5, with average wind speeds of more than 18.7 miles per hour. The windiest month of the year in Grytviken is August, with an average hourly wind speed of 19.9 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 7.3 months, from November 5 to June 13. The calmest month of the year in Grytviken is December, with an average hourly wind speed of 17.2 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed in Grytviken
The predominant average hourly wind direction in Grytviken is from the west throughout the year.
Wind Direction in Grytviken
Grytviken is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.
The average water temperature experiences some seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The time of year with warmer water lasts for 3.1 months, from January 10 to April 15, with an average temperature above 37°F. The month of the year in Grytviken with the warmest water is February, with an average temperature of 38°F.
The time of year with cooler water lasts for 4.1 months, from July 1 to November 4, with an average temperature below 34°F. The month of the year in Grytviken with the coolest water is September, with an average temperature of 32°F.
Average Water Temperature in Grytviken
To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Grytviken throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.
The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F.
Tourism Score in Grytviken
The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F.
Beach/Pool Score in Grytviken
For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.
Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.
Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.
Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.
Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
The growing season in Grytviken typically lasts for 2.6 months (77 days), from around December 31 to around March 18, rarely starting before December 3, or ending after April 21.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Grytviken
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
Growing Degree Days in Grytviken
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 2.5 months, from November 11 to January 29, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 4.4 kWh. The brightest month of the year in Grytviken is December, with an average of 5.3 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 4.4 months, from April 14 to August 27, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 1.4 kWh. The darkest month of the year in Grytviken is June, with an average of 0.4 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in Grytviken
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Grytviken are -54.281 deg latitude, -36.509 deg longitude, and 13 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Grytviken contains very significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 1,926 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 570 feet. Within 10 miles contains very significant variations in elevation (7,513 feet). Within 50 miles also contains extreme variations in elevation (9,669 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Grytviken is covered by snow and glaciers (51%), water (24%), and shrubs (11%), within 10 miles by snow and glaciers (52%) and water (43%), and within 50 miles by water (83%) and snow and glaciers (16%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Grytviken, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Grytviken is further than 200 kilometers from the nearest reliable weather station, so the weather-related data on this page were taken entirely from NASA's MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
The temperature and dew point estimates are corrected for the difference between the reference elevation of the MERRA-2 grid cell and the elevation of Grytviken, according to the International Standard Atmosphere .
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © OpenStreetMap contributors.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.
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