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Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Grytviken South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands

In Grytviken, the summers are short and very cold; the winters are long, freezing, and snowy; and it is extremely windy and overcast year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 26°F to 40°F and is rarely below 19°F or above 43°F.

Climate in Grytviken

very coldfreezingvery coldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecNowNow37%37%21%21%overcastprecipitation: 2.9 inprecipitation: 2.9 in1.2 in1.2 inmuggy: 0%muggy: 0%drydrytourism score: 0.0tourism score: 0.0
Grytviken weather by month. Click on each chart for more information.

The warm season lasts for 3.0 months, from December 30 to March 29, with an average daily high temperature above 38°F. The hottest month of the year in Grytviken is February, with an average high of 40°F and low of 36°F.

The cold season lasts for 4.2 months, from June 4 to October 12, with an average daily high temperature below 33°F. The coldest month of the year in Grytviken is August, with an average low of 26°F and high of 31°F.

Average High and Low Temperature in Grytviken

Average High and Low Temperature in GrytvikenwarmcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F10°F10°F20°F20°F30°F30°F40°F40°F50°F50°F60°F60°F70°F70°F80°F80°F90°F90°F100°F100°FJul 2431°FJul 2431°FFeb 2440°FFeb 2440°F26°F26°F36°F36°FDec 3038°FDec 3038°FMar 2938°FMar 2938°FJun 433°FJun 433°FOct 1233°FOct 1233°F34°F34°F35°F35°F29°F29°F29°F29°FNowNow
The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.
AverageJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
High39°F40°F39°F36°F34°F32°F31°F31°F31°F33°F35°F37°F
Temp.37°F38°F37°F35°F32°F30°F29°F29°F29°F31°F33°F35°F
Low35°F36°F35°F33°F30°F28°F27°F26°F27°F29°F32°F34°F

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature in Grytviken

Average Hourly Temperature in GrytvikenJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM12 AM2 AM2 AM4 AM4 AM6 AM6 AM8 AM8 AM10 AM10 AM12 PM12 PM2 PM2 PM4 PM4 PM6 PM6 PM8 PM8 PM10 PM10 PM12 AM12 AMNowNowfreezingvery coldvery cold
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Nanortalik, Greenland (7,929 miles away) is the far-away foreign place with temperatures most similar to Grytviken (view comparison).

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Marker
© Esri, et al.

Compare Grytviken to another city:

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In Grytviken, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year in Grytviken begins around October 1 and lasts for 6.0 months, ending around April 3.

The clearest month of the year in Grytviken is December, during which on average the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 36% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around April 3 and lasts for 6.0 months, ending around October 1.

The cloudiest month of the year in Grytviken is July, during which on average the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 78% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories in Grytviken

Cloud Cover Categories in GrytvikenclearerclearercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Dec 1637%Dec 1637%Jun 2121%Jun 2121%Oct 129%Oct 129%Apr 329%Apr 329%NowNowmostly clearpartly cloudymostly cloudyovercastclear
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds.
FractionJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Cloudier67%69%70%71%74%78%78%75%72%69%67%64%
Clearer33%31%30%29%26%22%22%25%28%31%33%36%

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Grytviken varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 5.9 months, from November 16 to May 14, with a greater than 33% chance of a given day being a wet day. The month with the most wet days in Grytviken is February, with an average of 11.8 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.

The drier season lasts 6.1 months, from May 14 to November 16. The month with the fewest wet days in Grytviken is October, with an average of 7.7 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation in Grytviken changes throughout the year.

Rain alone is the most common for 10 months, from August 22 to August 28 and from September 21 to July 26. The month with the most days of rain alone in Grytviken is February, with an average of 11.7 days.

Mixed snow and rain is the most common for 1.5 months, from July 26 to August 22 and from September 3 to September 21. The month with the most days of mixed snow and rain in Grytviken is August, with an average of 2.8 days.

Snow alone is the most common for 6.0 days, from August 28 to September 3. The month with the most days of snow alone in Grytviken is August, with an average of 2.5 days.

Daily Chance of Precipitation in Grytviken

Daily Chance of Precipitation in GrytvikenrainrainJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Jan 2644%Jan 2644%Oct 521%Oct 521%Jul 2624%Jul 2624%Aug 2827%Aug 2827%Jan 139%Jan 139%Nov 1633%Nov 1633%May 1433%May 1433%NowNowsnowmixedrain
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).
Days ofJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Rain12.8d11.7d12.1d10.6d7.7d4.8d3.4d2.8d2.7d4.7d8.0d10.2d
Mixed0.0d0.0d0.0d0.3d0.9d1.7d2.1d2.5d2.3d0.9d0.4d0.1d
Snow0.1d0.0d0.2d0.7d1.6d2.5d2.7d2.8d2.7d2.0d1.2d0.4d
Any12.9d11.8d12.3d11.7d10.2d9.0d8.1d8.1d7.7d7.7d9.6d10.7d

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Grytviken experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

Rain falls throughout the year in Grytviken. The month with the most rain in Grytviken is February, with an average rainfall of 2.8 inches.

The month with the least rain in Grytviken is August, with an average rainfall of 0.7 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall in Grytviken

Average Monthly Rainfall in GrytvikenJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in0 in1 in1 in2 in2 in3 in3 in4 in4 in5 in5 in6 in6 in7 in7 inFeb 72.9 inFeb 72.9 inAug 40.7 inAug 40.7 inSep 90.8 inSep 90.8 inNowNow
The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average snowfall.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Rainfall2.5″2.8″2.6″2.3″1.6″1.3″0.8″0.7″0.8″0.9″1.6″1.8″

Snowfall

As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Grytviken experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly snowfall.

The snowy period of the year lasts for 7.3 months, from April 22 to November 30, with a sliding 31-day snowfall of at least 1.0 inches. The month with the most snow in Grytviken is September, with an average snowfall of 6.1 inches.

The snowless period of the year lasts for 4.7 months, from November 30 to April 22. The least snow falls around February 8, with an average total accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Monthly Snowfall in Grytviken

Average Monthly Snowfall in GrytvikensnowJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in0 in2 in2 in4 in4 in6 in6 in8 in8 in10 in10 in12 in12 inSep 106.3 inSep 106.3 inFeb 80.0 inFeb 80.0 inApr 221.0 inApr 221.0 inNov 301.0 inNov 301.0 inNowNow
The average snowfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average rainfall.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Snowfall0.0″0.0″0.3″0.8″2.2″4.6″5.1″5.6″6.1″3.0″1.5″0.5″

The length of the day in Grytviken varies extremely over the course of the year. In 2021, the shortest day is June 21, with 7 hours, 19 minutes of daylight; the longest day is December 21, with 17 hours, 13 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight in Grytviken

Hours of Daylight and Twilight in GrytvikenJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 hr24 hr4 hr20 hr8 hr16 hr12 hr12 hr16 hr8 hr20 hr4 hr24 hr0 hr12 hr, 10 minSep 2212 hr, 10 minSep 2217 hr, 13 minDec 2117 hr, 13 minDec 2112 hr, 15 minMar 2012 hr, 15 minMar 207 hr, 19 minJun 217 hr, 19 minJun 21daydaynightNowNow
The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.
Hours ofJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Daylight16.4h14.6h12.4h10.2h8.3h7.4h8.0h9.7h11.8h14.0h16.0h17.1h

The earliest sunrise is at 3:46 AM on December 14, and the latest sunrise is 5 hours, 3 minutes later at 8:48 AM on June 24. The earliest sunset is at 4:06 PM on June 16, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 56 minutes later at 9:02 PM on December 28.

Daylight saving time (DST) is not observed in Grytviken during 2021.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight in Grytviken

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight in GrytvikenJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMDec 143:46 AMDec 143:46 AM9:02 PMDec 289:02 PMDec 28Jun 164:06 PMJun 164:06 PM8:48 AMJun 248:48 AMJun 24daynightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunsetNowNow
The solar day over the course of the year 2021. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray.

The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2021. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.

Moon Rise, Set & Phases in Grytviken

The time in which the moon is above the horizon (light blue area), with new moons (dark gray lines) and full moons (blue lines) indicated. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

The perceived humidity level in Grytviken, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, remaining a virtually constant 0% throughout.

Humidity Comfort Levels in Grytviken

Humidity Comfort Levels in GrytvikenJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Jul 30%Jul 30%NowNowdrydry
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Muggy days0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed in Grytviken experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 4.7 months, from June 13 to November 5, with average wind speeds of more than 18.7 miles per hour. The windiest month of the year in Grytviken is August, with an average hourly wind speed of 19.9 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 7.3 months, from November 5 to June 13. The calmest month of the year in Grytviken is December, with an average hourly wind speed of 17.2 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed in Grytviken

Average Wind Speed in GrytvikenwindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph0 mph5 mph5 mph10 mph10 mph15 mph15 mph20 mph20 mph25 mph25 mph30 mph30 mphAug 2920.3 mphAug 2920.3 mphDec 2217.0 mphDec 2217.0 mphJun 1318.7 mphJun 1318.7 mphNowNow
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Wind Speed (mph)17.318.218.418.718.418.819.619.919.318.918.117.2

The predominant average hourly wind direction in Grytviken is from the west throughout the year.

Wind Direction in Grytviken

Wind Direction in GrytvikenJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%NowNowwestnorthsoutheast
northeastsouthwest
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions, excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1.0 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Grytviken is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences some seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 3.1 months, from January 10 to April 15, with an average temperature above 37°F. The month of the year in Grytviken with the warmest water is February, with an average temperature of 38°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 4.1 months, from July 1 to November 4, with an average temperature below 34°F. The month of the year in Grytviken with the coolest water is September, with an average temperature of 32°F.

Average Water Temperature in Grytviken

Average Water Temperature in GrytvikenwarmcoolJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec30°F30°F32°F32°F34°F34°F36°F36°F38°F38°F40°F40°FMar 338°FMar 338°F32°FSep 832°FSep 8Jan 1037°FJan 1037°FApr 1537°FApr 1537°FJul 134°FJul 134°FNov 434°FNov 434°FNowNow
The daily average water temperature (purple line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.
WaterJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Temperature37°F38°F38°F37°F35°F34°F33°F33°F32°F33°F34°F36°F

To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Grytviken throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F.

Tourism Score in Grytviken

Tourism Score in GrytvikenJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810100.00.0NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperature
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F.

Beach/Pool Score in Grytviken

Beach/Pool Score in GrytvikenJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810100.00.0NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperature
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season in Grytviken typically lasts for 2.6 months (76 days), from around December 31 to around March 18, rarely starting before December 3, or ending after April 21.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Grytviken

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in GrytvikenJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Dec 3150%Dec 3150%Mar 1850%Mar 1850%Dec 310%Dec 310%Apr 2110%Apr 2110%0%Aug 140%Aug 14Feb 486%Feb 486%NowNowfreezingvery cold
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Growing Degree Days in Grytviken

Growing Degree Days in GrytvikenJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0.0°F0.0°F0.1°F0.1°F0.2°F0.2°F0.3°F0.3°F0.4°F0.4°F0.5°F0.5°F0.6°F0.6°F0.7°F0.7°F0.8°F0.8°F0.9°F0.9°F1.0°F1.0°FJun 300°FJun 300°FNowNow
The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 2.5 months, from November 11 to January 29, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 4.4 kWh. The brightest month of the year in Grytviken is December, with an average of 5.3 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 4.4 months, from April 14 to August 27, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 1.4 kWh. The darkest month of the year in Grytviken is June, with an average of 0.4 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in Grytviken

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in GrytvikenbrightbrightdarkJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 kWh0 kWh1 kWh1 kWh2 kWh2 kWh3 kWh3 kWh4 kWh4 kWh5 kWh5 kWh6 kWh6 kWh7 kWh7 kWh8 kWh8 kWhDec 215.4 kWhDec 215.4 kWhJun 210.4 kWhJun 210.4 kWhJan 294.4 kWhJan 294.4 kWhApr 141.4 kWhApr 141.4 kWhAug 271.4 kWhAug 271.4 kWhNowNow
The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Solar Energy (kWh)4.83.72.41.30.60.40.51.12.13.44.65.3

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Grytviken are -54.281 deg latitude, -36.509 deg longitude, and 13 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Grytviken contains very significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 1,926 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 570 feet. Within 10 miles contains very significant variations in elevation (7,513 feet). Within 50 miles also contains extreme variations in elevation (9,669 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Grytviken is covered by snow and glaciers (51%), water (24%), and shrubs (11%), within 10 miles by snow and glaciers (52%) and water (43%), and within 50 miles by water (83%) and snow and glaciers (16%).

This report illustrates the typical weather in Grytviken, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Grytviken is further than 200 kilometers from the nearest reliable weather station, so the weather-related data on this page were taken entirely from NASA's MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

The temperature and dew point estimates are corrected for the difference between the reference elevation of the MERRA-2 grid cell and the elevation of Grytviken, according to the International Standard Atmosphere .

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.