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Average Weather in Québec Canada

In Québec, the temperature typically varies from 6°F to 78°F over the course of the year, and is rarely below -12°F or above 86°F.

The warm season lasts for 113 days, from May 27 to September 17, with an average daily high temperature above 66°F. The hottest day of the year is July 26, with an average high of 78°F and low of 61°F.

The cold season lasts for 101 days, from December 3 to March 14, with an average daily high temperature below 32°F. The coldest day of the year is January 29, with an average low of 6°F and high of 20°F.

Average High and Low Temperature

The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature with percentile bands, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature

12 AM4 AM8 AM12 PM4 PM8 PM12 AMJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecfrigidfrigidfreezingfreezingchillychillycoldcoldcoolcoolcomfortablecomfortablewarmwarm
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < chilly < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Sun

The length of the day in Québec varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2017, the shortest day is December 21, with 8 hours, 32 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 15 hours, 52 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight

The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 4:49 AM on June 16, and the latest sunrise is 2 hours, 42 minutes later at 7:31 AM on November 4. The earliest sunset is at 3:56 PM on December 10, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 47 minutes later at 8:43 PM on June 25.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Québec during 2017, starting in the spring on March 12, lasting 237 days, and ending in the fall on November 5.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time

The solar day over the course of the year 2017. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

Clouds

In Québec, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year in Québec begins around June 11 and lasts for 138 days, ending around October 27. On August 20, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 61% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 39% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around October 27 and lasts for 227 days, ending around June 11. On January 4, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 65% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 34% of the time.

Cloud Cover

clearerclearercloudiercloudiercloudiercloudier0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecJan 465%Jan 465%Aug 2039%Aug 2039%Jun 1152%Jun 1152%Oct 2752%Oct 2752%overcastovercastmostly cloudymostly cloudymostly clearmostly clearclearclear
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds: clear < 20% < mostly clear < 40% < partly cloudy < 60% < mostly cloudy < 80% < overcast.

Precipitation

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Québec varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 190 days, from May 12 to November 18, with a greater than 33% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 45% on July 6.

The drier season lasts 175 days, from November 18 to May 12. The smallest chance of a wet day is 22% on February 3.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation in Québec changes throughout the year.

Rain alone is the most common for 261 days, from March 19 to December 5. The highest chance of a day with rain alone is 45% on July 6.

Snow alone is the most common for 104 days, from December 5 to March 19. The highest chance of a day with snow alone is 20% on January 3.

Daily Chance of Precipitation

snowsnowrainrainsnowsnow0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecJul 645%Jul 645%Feb 322%Feb 322%Mar 1925%Mar 1925%Dec 529%Dec 529%May 1234%May 1234%snowsnowmixedmixedrainrain
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day in the year. Québec experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

Rain falls throughout the year in Québec. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around July 4, with an average total accumulation of 3.9 inches.

The least rain falls around February 9, with and average total accumulation of 0.6 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall

The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Snowfall

We report snowfall in liquid-equivalent terms. The actual depth of new snowfall is typically between 5 and 10 times the liquid-equivalent amount, assuming the ground is frozen. Colder, drier snow tends to be on the higher end of that range and warmer, wetter snow on the lower end.

As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day in the year. Québec experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly liquid-equivalent snowfall.

The snowy period of the year lasts for 172 days, from November 1 to April 22, with a sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent snowfall of at least 0.1 inches. The most snow falls during the 31 days centered around December 29, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 1.5 inches.

The snowless period of the year lasts for 193 days, from April 22 to November 1. The least snow falls around July 23, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall

The average liquid-equivalent snowfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average rainfall.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

Québec experiences some seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.

The muggier period of the year lasts for 92 days, from June 13 to September 13, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 4% of the time. The muggiest day of the year is July 27, with muggy conditions 15% of the time.

The least muggy day of the year is November 27, when muggy conditions are essentially unheard of.

Humidity Comfort Levels

muggymuggy0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecNov 270%Nov 270%Jul 2715%Jul 2715%Jun 134%Jun 134%Sep 134%Sep 134%oppressiveoppressivecomfortablecomfortabledrydry
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point: dry < 55°F < comfortable < 60°F < humid < 65°F < muggy < 70°F < oppressive < 75°F < miserable.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed in Québec experiences mildly seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 200 days, from October 21 to May 9, with average wind speeds of more than 3.7 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is February 20, with an average hourly wind speed of 4.4 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 165 days, from May 9 to October 21. The calmest day of the year is August 4, with an average hourly wind speed of 3.0 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed

The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction in Québec is from the west throughout the year.

Wind Direction

0%20%40%60%80%100%JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecwestwestsouthsoutheasteastnorthnorth
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions (north, east, south, and west), excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Water Temperature

Québec is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 84 days, from July 4 to September 26, with an average temperature above 57°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 14, with an average temperature of 63°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 149 days, from December 3 to May 1, with an average temperature below 38°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is March 7, with an average temperature of 32°F.

Average Water Temperature

The daily average water temperature (purple line) with percentile bands, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences very significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 115 days, from May 1 to August 24, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 5.3 kWh. The brightest day of the year is July 2, with an average of 6.4 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 108 days, from October 26 to February 11, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 2.2 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 17, with an average of 1.1 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy

The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Québec are 46.812 deg latitude, -71.215 deg longitude, and 30 ft elevation (map ).

The topography within 2 miles of Québec contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 328 feet, and an average elevation above sea level of 66 feet. Within 10 miles contains very significant variations in elevation (1,870 feet). Within 50 miles contains extreme variations in elevation (3,760 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Québec is covered by artificial surfaces (57%) and water (31%), within 10 miles by trees (32%) and cropland (28%), and within 50 miles by trees (71%) and cropland (17%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather in Québec, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

There are 2 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Québec.

For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Québec according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.

The estimated value at Québec is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Québec and a given station.

The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Beauport CS, Que. (85%, 3.3 kilometers, northeast) and Ste Foy CS , Que. (15%, 6 kilometers, southwest).

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .