Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Montréal Canada
In Montréal, the summers are long and warm; the winters are freezing, snowy, and windy; and it is partly cloudy year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 9°F to 79°F and is rarely below -9°F or above 87°F.
Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Montréal for warm-weather activities is from late June to early September.
Average Temperature in Montréal
The warm season lasts for 3.9 months, from May 22 to September 19, with an average daily high temperature above 68°F. The hottest month of the year in Montréal is July, with an average high of 79°F and low of 63°F.
The cold season lasts for 3.3 months, from December 4 to March 12, with an average daily high temperature below 34°F. The coldest month of the year in Montréal is January, with an average low of 10°F and high of 24°F.
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Saratov, Russia (4,836 miles away) and Sapporo, Japan (5,958 miles) are the far-away foreign places with temperatures most similar to Montréal (view comparison).
In Montréal, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in Montréal begins around June 8 and lasts for 4.5 months, ending around October 23.
The clearest month of the year in Montréal is August, during which on average the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 62% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around October 23 and lasts for 7.5 months, ending around June 8.
The cloudiest month of the year in Montréal is January, during which on average the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 64% of the time.
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Montréal varies throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 7.2 months, from April 11 to November 18, with a greater than 32% chance of a given day being a wet day. The month with the most wet days in Montréal is July, with an average of 12.4 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
The drier season lasts 4.8 months, from November 18 to April 11. The month with the fewest wet days in Montréal is February, with an average of 6.8 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation in Montréal changes throughout the year.
Rain alone is the most common for 9.2 months, from March 7 to December 12. The month with the most days of rain alone in Montréal is July, with an average of 12.4 days.
Snow alone is the most common for 2.8 months, from December 12 to March 7. The month with the most days of snow alone in Montréal is January, with an average of 4.4 days.
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Montréal experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
Rain falls throughout the year in Montréal. The month with the most rain in Montréal is June, with an average rainfall of 3.2 inches.
The month with the least rain in Montréal is February, with an average rainfall of 0.7 inches.
As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Montréal experiences extreme seasonal variation in monthly snowfall.
The snowy period of the year lasts for 5.8 months, from October 31 to April 24, with a sliding 31-day snowfall of at least 1.0 inches. The month with the most snow in Montréal is December, with an average snowfall of 11.7 inches.
The snowless period of the year lasts for 6.2 months, from April 24 to October 31. The least snow falls around August 1, with an average total accumulation of 0.0 inches.
The length of the day in Montréal varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2023, the shortest day is December 21, with 8 hours, 42 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 15 hours, 41 minutes of daylight.
The earliest sunrise is at 5:04 AM on June 16, and the latest sunrise is 2 hours, 33 minutes later at 7:37 AM on November 4. The earliest sunset is at 4:10 PM on December 10, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 37 minutes later at 8:47 PM on June 26.
Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Montréal during 2023, starting in the spring on March 12, lasting 7.8 months, and ending in the fall on November 5.
The figure below presents a compact representation of the sun's elevation (the angle of the sun above the horizon) and azimuth (its compass bearing) for every hour of every day in the reporting period. The horizontal axis is the day of the year and the vertical axis is the hour of the day. For a given day and hour of that day, the background color indicates the azimuth of the sun at that moment. The black isolines are contours of constant solar elevation.
The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2023. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
Montréal experiences some seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.
The muggier period of the year lasts for 3.2 months, from June 9 to September 16, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 5% of the time. The month with the most muggy days in Montréal is July, with 5.7 days that are muggy or worse.
The least muggy day of the year is February 28, when muggy conditions are essentially unheard of.
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Montréal experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 6.7 months, from October 22 to May 13, with average wind speeds of more than 9.3 miles per hour. The windiest month of the year in Montréal is March, with an average hourly wind speed of 10.8 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 5.3 months, from May 13 to October 22. The calmest month of the year in Montréal is August, with an average hourly wind speed of 7.9 miles per hour.
The predominant average hourly wind direction in Montréal is from the west throughout the year.
Best Time of Year to Visit
To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Montréal throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.
The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Montréal for general outdoor tourist activities is from late June to early September, with a peak score in the second week of August.
Tourism Score in Montréal
The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Montréal for hot-weather activities is from early July to mid August, with a peak score in the last week of July.
Beach/Pool Score in Montréal
For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.
Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.
Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.
Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.
Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
The growing season in Montréal typically lasts for 6.0 months (185 days), from around April 20 to around October 22, rarely starting before April 4 or after May 7, and rarely ending before October 2 or after November 10.
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in Montréal should appear around May 3, only rarely appearing before April 23 or after May 14.
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.6 months, from May 5 to August 24, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 5.6 kWh. The brightest month of the year in Montréal is June, with an average of 6.5 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 3.4 months, from October 28 to February 11, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 2.3 kWh. The darkest month of the year in Montréal is December, with an average of 1.3 kWh.
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Montréal are 45.509 deg latitude, -73.588 deg longitude, and 659 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Montréal contains significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 712 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 243 feet. Within 10 miles also contains significant variations in elevation (732 feet). Within 50 miles contains significant variations in elevation (2,139 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Montréal is covered by artificial surfaces (86%), within 10 miles by artificial surfaces (57%) and water (13%), and within 50 miles by cropland (42%) and trees (40%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Montréal, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There are 3 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Montréal.
For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Montréal according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
The estimated value at Montréal is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Montréal and a given station.
The stations contributing to this reconstruction are:
To get a sense of how much these sources agree with each other, you can view a comparison of Montréal and the stations that contribute to our estimates of its temperature history and climate. Please note that each source's contribution is adjusted for elevation and the relative change present in the MERRA-2 data.
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © OpenStreetMap contributors.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.
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