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Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Seward Alaska, United States

In Seward, the summers are cool, wet, and overcast and the winters are long, freezing, snowy, windy, and mostly cloudy. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 22°F to 62°F and is rarely below 6°F or above 70°F.

Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Seward for warm-weather activities is from early July to mid August.

Climate in Seward

very coldcoldcoolcoldvery coldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecNowNow38%38%28%28%overcastclearprecipitation: 10.2 inprecipitation: 10.2 in4.1 in4.1 inmuggy: 0%muggy: 0%drydrytourism score: 2.7tourism score: 2.70.00.0
Seward weather by month. Click on each chart for more information.

The warm season lasts for 3.5 months, from May 31 to September 14, with an average daily high temperature above 56°F. The hottest month of the year in Seward is July, with an average high of 61°F and low of 50°F.

The cold season lasts for 4.2 months, from November 7 to March 15, with an average daily high temperature below 37°F. The coldest month of the year in Seward is January, with an average low of 23°F and high of 32°F.

Average High and Low Temperature in Seward

Average High and Low Temperature in SewardwarmcoldcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F10°F10°F20°F20°F30°F30°F40°F40°F50°F50°F60°F60°F70°F70°F80°F80°F90°F90°F100°F100°FJan 2031°FJan 2031°FAug 162°FAug 162°F22°F22°F51°F51°FMay 3156°FMay 3156°FSep 1456°FSep 1456°FNov 737°FNov 737°FMar 1537°FMar 1537°F43°F43°F44°F44°F29°F29°F26°F26°FNowNow
The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.
AverageJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
High 32°F34°F38°F45°F53°F58°F61°F61°F55°F45°F35°F32°F
Temp. 27°F28°F31°F38°F46°F52°F55°F55°F49°F39°F31°F28°F
Low 23°F24°F27°F33°F40°F46°F50°F50°F44°F35°F27°F24°F

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature in Seward

Average Hourly Temperature in SewardJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM12 AM2 AM2 AM4 AM4 AM6 AM6 AM8 AM8 AM10 AM10 AM12 PM12 PM2 PM2 PM4 PM4 PM6 PM6 PM8 PM8 PM10 PM10 PM12 AM12 AMNowNowfreezingfreezingvery coldvery coldcoldcool
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.
Map
Marker
© Esri, et al.

Compare Seward to another city:

Map

In Seward, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year in Seward begins around February 21 and lasts for 2.0 months, ending around April 23.

The clearest month of the year in Seward is March, during which on average the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 37% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around April 23 and lasts for 10.0 months, ending around February 21.

The cloudiest month of the year in Seward is December, during which on average the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 71% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories in Seward

Cloud Cover Categories in SewardclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Mar 1638%Mar 1638%Dec 1828%Dec 1828%Apr 2333%Apr 2333%NowNowclearmostly clearpartly cloudymostly cloudyovercast
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds.
FractionJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Cloudier 70%68%63%66%68%70%70%67%68%65%66%71%
Clearer 30%32%37%34%32%30%30%33%32%35%34%29%

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Seward varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 8.9 months, from August 6 to May 2, with a greater than 48% chance of a given day being a wet day. The month with the most wet days in Seward is January, with an average of 17.3 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.

The drier season lasts 3.1 months, from May 2 to August 6. The month with the fewest wet days in Seward is June, with an average of 12.0 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation in Seward changes throughout the year.

Rain alone is the most common for 12 months, from December 17 to December 8. The month with the most days of rain alone in Seward is September, with an average of 16.5 days.

Mixed snow and rain is the most common for 1.3 weeks, from December 8 to December 17. The month with the most days of mixed snow and rain in Seward is December, with an average of 6.7 days.

Daily Chance of Precipitation in Seward

Daily Chance of Precipitation in SewardrainJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Sep 2457%Sep 2457%Jul 638%Jul 638%Dec 854%Dec 854%Aug 648%Aug 648%May 248%May 248%NowNowsnowmixedrain
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).
Days ofJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Rain 7.8d6.8d8.9d12.7d13.0d12.0d12.9d14.9d16.5d14.6d8.8d7.0d
Mixed 3.4d2.5d1.6d0.2d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.3d2.0d3.2d
Snow 6.1d5.1d4.0d1.8d0.1d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d1.5d4.5d6.7d
Any 17.3d14.5d14.5d14.7d13.1d12.0d12.9d14.9d16.5d16.3d15.3d17.0d

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Seward experiences extreme seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

Rain falls throughout the year in Seward. The month with the most rain in Seward is September, with an average rainfall of 10.0 inches.

The month with the least rain in Seward is June, with an average rainfall of 4.3 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall in Seward

The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average snowfall.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Rainfall 7.3″6.1″5.1″5.9″5.0″4.3″4.8″7.0″10.0″9.0″7.1″7.1″

Snowfall

As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Seward experiences extreme seasonal variation in monthly snowfall.

The snowy period of the year lasts for 6.6 months, from October 7 to April 27, with a sliding 31-day snowfall of at least 1.0 inches. The month with the most snow in Seward is December, with an average snowfall of 18.9 inches.

The snowless period of the year lasts for 5.4 months, from April 27 to October 7. The least snow falls around July 25, with an average total accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Monthly Snowfall in Seward

Average Monthly Snowfall in SewardsnowsnowJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in0 in10 in10 in20 in20 in30 in30 in40 in40 inDec 2219.1 inDec 2219.1 inJul 250.0 inJul 250.0 inOct 71.0 inOct 71.0 inApr 271.0 inApr 271.0 in
The average snowfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average rainfall.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Snowfall 18.5″15.3″9.9″2.7″0.1″0.0″0.0″0.0″0.0″2.3″11.3″18.9″

The length of the day in Seward varies extremely over the course of the year. In 2022, the shortest day is December 21, with 5 hours, 50 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 18 hours, 55 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight in Seward

The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.
Hours ofJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Daylight 6.9h9.2h12.0h14.8h17.3h18.8h17.9h15.5h12.7h10.0h7.4h6.0h

The earliest sunrise is at 4:32 AM on June 19, and the latest sunrise is 5 hours, 30 minutes later at 10:02 AM on December 27. The earliest sunset is at 3:49 PM on December 16, and the latest sunset is 7 hours, 37 minutes later at 11:27 PM on June 22.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Seward during 2022, starting in the spring on March 13, lasting 7.8 months, and ending in the fall on November 6.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in Seward

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in SewardJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AM2 AMJun 194:32 AMJun 194:32 AM11:27 PMJun 2211:27 PMJun 22Dec 163:49 PMDec 163:49 PM10:02 AMDec 2710:02 AMDec 27Mar 13DSTMar 13DSTdaynightnightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunsetNowNow
The solar day over the course of the year 2022. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2022. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.

Moon Rise, Set & Phases in Seward

The time in which the moon is above the horizon (light blue area), with new moons (dark gray lines) and full moons (blue lines) indicated. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

The perceived humidity level in Seward, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, remaining a virtually constant 0% throughout.

Humidity Comfort Levels in Seward

Humidity Comfort Levels in SewardJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Jul 30%Jul 30%drydry
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Muggy days 0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d0.0d

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed in Seward experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 7.2 months, from September 16 to April 22, with average wind speeds of more than 8.3 miles per hour. The windiest month of the year in Seward is January, with an average hourly wind speed of 10.9 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 4.8 months, from April 22 to September 16. The calmest month of the year in Seward is July, with an average hourly wind speed of 5.7 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed in Seward

Average Wind Speed in SewardwindywindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph0 mph2 mph2 mph4 mph4 mph6 mph6 mph8 mph8 mph10 mph10 mph12 mph12 mph14 mph14 mph16 mph16 mph18 mph18 mph20 mph20 mphJan 811.1 mphJan 811.1 mphJul 65.5 mphJul 65.5 mphSep 168.3 mphSep 168.3 mphApr 228.3 mphApr 228.3 mphNowNow
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Wind Speed (mph) 10.910.39.68.66.95.95.76.58.29.110.010.4

The predominant average hourly wind direction in Seward varies throughout the year.

The wind is most often from the north for 1.6 months, from October 10 to November 29, with a peak percentage of 42% on November 6. The wind is most often from the east for 10 months, from November 29 to October 10, with a peak percentage of 41% on January 1.

Wind Direction in Seward

Wind Direction in SewardENEJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%NowNoweastnorthsouthwest
northeastsouthwest
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions, excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1.0 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Seward is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences some seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 2.7 months, from June 30 to September 20, with an average temperature above 52°F. The month of the year in Seward with the warmest water is August, with an average temperature of 55°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 4.9 months, from December 11 to May 7, with an average temperature below 42°F. The month of the year in Seward with the coolest water is March, with an average temperature of 39°F.

Average Water Temperature in Seward

Average Water Temperature in SewardwarmcoolJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec35°F35°F40°F40°F45°F45°F50°F50°F55°F55°F60°F60°FAug 955°FAug 955°F39°FMar 1439°FMar 14Jun 3052°FJun 3052°FSep 2052°FSep 2052°FDec 1142°FDec 1142°FMay 742°FMay 742°FNowNow
The daily average water temperature (purple line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.
WaterJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Temperature 40°F39°F39°F40°F44°F50°F54°F55°F52°F48°F44°F42°F

To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Seward throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Seward for general outdoor tourist activities is from early July to mid August, with a peak score in the last week of July.

Tourism Score in Seward

Tourism Score in SewardJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810102.72.70.00.0NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudsclouds
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Seward for hot-weather activities is from early to mid July, with a peak score in the second week of July.

Beach/Pool Score in Seward

Beach/Pool Score in SewardJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810100.10.10.00.0precipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperature
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season in Seward typically lasts for 5.1 months (158 days), from around May 3 to around October 8, rarely starting before April 13 or after May 24, and rarely ending before September 20 or after October 26.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Seward

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Sewardgrowing seasonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%May 350%May 350%Oct 850%Oct 850%May 2490%May 2490%Sep 2090%Sep 2090%Apr 1310%Apr 1310%Oct 2610%Oct 2610%0%Feb 120%Feb 12Jul 21100%Jul 21100%NowNowfreezingvery coldcoldcoolfrigid
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in Seward should appear around June 20, only rarely appearing before June 7 or after July 7.

Growing Degree Days in Seward

Growing Degree Days in SewardJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F100°F100°F200°F200°F300°F300°F400°F400°F500°F500°F600°F600°F700°F700°FJun 2090°FJun 2090°FDec 31501°FDec 31501°FNowNow
The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.1 months, from April 28 to July 30, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 4.4 kWh. The brightest month of the year in Seward is June, with an average of 5.4 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 4.1 months, from October 17 to February 21, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 1.2 kWh. The darkest month of the year in Seward is December, with an average of 0.2 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in Seward

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in SewardbrightdarkdarkJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 kWh0 kWh1 kWh1 kWh2 kWh2 kWh3 kWh3 kWh4 kWh4 kWh5 kWh5 kWh6 kWh6 kWh7 kWh7 kWh8 kWh8 kWhJun 185.4 kWhJun 185.4 kWhDec 210.2 kWhDec 210.2 kWhApr 284.4 kWhApr 284.4 kWhJul 304.4 kWhJul 304.4 kWhOct 171.2 kWhOct 171.2 kWhFeb 211.2 kWhFeb 211.2 kWhNowNow
The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Solar Energy (kWh) 0.31.02.43.85.05.44.83.72.41.20.50.2

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Seward are 60.104 deg latitude, -149.443 deg longitude, and 105 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Seward contains large variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 3,271 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 711 feet. Within 10 miles contains large variations in elevation (5,433 feet). Within 50 miles also contains extreme variations in elevation (6,575 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Seward is covered by water (42%), shrubs (18%), trees (14%), and bare soil (13%), within 10 miles by snow and glaciers (23%) and trees (21%), and within 50 miles by water (33%) and snow and glaciers (21%).

This report illustrates the typical weather in Seward, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

There are 3 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Seward.

For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Seward according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.

The estimated value at Seward is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Seward and a given station.

The stations contributing to this reconstruction are:

To get a sense of how much these sources agree with each other, you can view a comparison of Seward and the stations that contribute to our estimates of its temperature history and climate. Please note that each source's contribution is adjusted for elevation and the relative change present in the MERRA-2 data.

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.

Please review our full terms contained on our Terms of Service page.