Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Columbia Maryland, United States
In Columbia, the summers are warm and humid; the winters are very cold, snowy, and windy; and it is partly cloudy year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 26°F to 86°F and is rarely below 13°F or above 94°F.
Based on the tourism score, the best times of year to visit Columbia for warm-weather activities are from mid June to early July and from early August to late September.
Climate in Columbia
The hot season lasts for 3.6 months, from May 30 to September 16, with an average daily high temperature above 77°F. The hottest month of the year in Columbia is July, with an average high of 86°F and low of 68°F.
The cold season lasts for 3.1 months, from December 1 to March 5, with an average daily high temperature below 50°F. The coldest month of the year in Columbia is January, with an average low of 27°F and high of 41°F.
Average High and Low Temperature in Columbia
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature in Columbia
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
In Columbia, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in Columbia begins around June 29 and lasts for 4.5 months, ending around November 13.
The clearest month of the year in Columbia is September, during which on average the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 64% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around November 13 and lasts for 7.5 months, ending around June 29.
The cloudiest month of the year in Columbia is January, during which on average the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 52% of the time.
Cloud Cover Categories in Columbia
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Columbia varies throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 4.8 months, from April 2 to August 26, with a greater than 30% chance of a given day being a wet day. The month with the most wet days in Columbia is July, with an average of 11.4 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
The drier season lasts 7.2 months, from August 26 to April 2. The month with the fewest wet days in Columbia is January, with an average of 6.8 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. The month with the most days of rain alone in Columbia is July, with an average of 11.4 days. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 38% on July 14.
Daily Chance of Precipitation in Columbia
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Columbia experiences some seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
Rain falls throughout the year in Columbia. The month with the most rain in Columbia is May, with an average rainfall of 3.5 inches.
The month with the least rain in Columbia is January, with an average rainfall of 1.9 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall in Columbia
As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Columbia experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly snowfall.
The snowy period of the year lasts for 4.3 months, from November 18 to March 29, with a sliding 31-day snowfall of at least 1.0 inches. The month with the most snow in Columbia is February, with an average snowfall of 7.8 inches.
The snowless period of the year lasts for 7.7 months, from March 29 to November 18. The least snow falls around July 19, with an average total accumulation of 0.0 inches.
Average Monthly Snowfall in Columbia
The length of the day in Columbia varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2022, the shortest day is December 21, with 9 hours, 24 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 14 hours, 56 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight in Columbia
The earliest sunrise is at 5:40 AM on June 13, and the latest sunrise is 1 hour, 59 minutes later at 7:39 AM on November 5. The earliest sunset is at 4:44 PM on December 7, and the latest sunset is 3 hours, 54 minutes later at 8:37 PM on June 27.
Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Columbia during 2022, starting in the spring on March 13, lasting 7.8 months, and ending in the fall on November 6.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in Columbia
The figure below presents a compact representation of the sun's elevation (the angle of the sun above the horizon) and azimuth (its compass bearing) for every hour of every day in the reporting period. The horizontal axis is the day of the year and the vertical axis is the hour of the day. For a given day and hour of that day, the background color indicates the azimuth of the sun at that moment. The black isolines are contours of constant solar elevation.
Solar Elevation and Azimuth in Columbia
The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2022. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.
Moon Rise, Set & Phases in Columbia
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
Columbia experiences extreme seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.
The muggier period of the year lasts for 4.0 months, from May 26 to September 25, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 15% of the time. The month with the most muggy days in Columbia is July, with 17.2 days that are muggy or worse.
The month with the fewest muggy days in Columbia is February, with 0.0 days that are muggy or worse.
Humidity Comfort Levels in Columbia
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Columbia experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 6.6 months, from October 21 to May 9, with average wind speeds of more than 8.8 miles per hour. The windiest month of the year in Columbia is March, with an average hourly wind speed of 10.7 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 5.4 months, from May 9 to October 21. The calmest month of the year in Columbia is July, with an average hourly wind speed of 6.8 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed in Columbia
The predominant average hourly wind direction in Columbia varies throughout the year.
The wind is most often from the north for 2.9 weeks, from March 8 to March 28, with a peak percentage of 32% on March 10. The wind is most often from the west for 1.3 months, from March 28 to May 5; for 4.1 weeks, from June 25 to July 24; and for 4.9 months, from October 10 to March 8, with a peak percentage of 35% on July 6. The wind is most often from the south for 1.7 months, from May 5 to June 25 and for 2.5 months, from July 24 to October 10, with a peak percentage of 35% on August 16.
Wind Direction in Columbia
Columbia is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.
The average water temperature experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The time of year with warmer water lasts for 3.3 months, from June 23 to October 1, with an average temperature above 69°F. The month of the year in Columbia with the warmest water is August, with an average temperature of 77°F.
The time of year with cooler water lasts for 3.6 months, from December 19 to April 6, with an average temperature below 44°F. The month of the year in Columbia with the coolest water is February, with an average temperature of 36°F.
Average Water Temperature in Columbia
To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Columbia throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.
The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best times of year to visit Columbia for general outdoor tourist activities are from mid June to early July and from early August to late September, with a peak score in the first week of September.
Tourism Score in Columbia
The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Columbia for hot-weather activities is from late June to early September, with a peak score in the last week of July.
Beach/Pool Score in Columbia
For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.
Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.
Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.
Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.
Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
The growing season in Columbia typically lasts for 6.8 months (210 days), from around April 5 to around October 31, rarely starting before March 19 or after April 21, and rarely ending before October 14 or after November 16.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Columbia
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in Columbia should appear around March 27, only rarely appearing before March 11 or after April 13.
Growing Degree Days in Columbia
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.8 months, from April 28 to August 23, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 5.9 kWh. The brightest month of the year in Columbia is June, with an average of 6.8 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 3.1 months, from November 6 to February 9, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 2.9 kWh. The darkest month of the year in Columbia is December, with an average of 2.0 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in Columbia
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Columbia are 39.240 deg latitude, -76.839 deg longitude, and 404 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Columbia contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 233 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 385 feet. Within 10 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (673 feet). Within 50 miles contains significant variations in elevation (2,136 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Columbia is covered by artificial surfaces (80%) and trees (19%), within 10 miles by artificial surfaces (47%) and trees (37%), and within 50 miles by cropland (34%) and trees (32%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Columbia, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There are 5 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Columbia.
For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Columbia according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
The estimated value at Columbia is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Columbia and a given station.
The stations contributing to this reconstruction are:
To get a sense of how much these sources agree with each other, you can view a comparison of Columbia and the stations that contribute to our estimates of its temperature history and climate. Please note that each source's contribution is adjusted for elevation and the relative change present in the MERRA-2 data.
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.
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