Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Tocumen Panama
In Tocumen, the wet season is overcast, the dry season is windy and partly cloudy, and it is hot and oppressive year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 72°F to 91°F and is rarely below 69°F or above 94°F.
Based on the beach/pool score, the best time of year to visit Tocumen for hot-weather activities is from late December to late March.
Climate in Tocumen
The temperature in Tocumen varies so little throughout the year that it is not entirely meaningful to discuss hot and cold seasons.
Average High and Low Temperature in Tocumen
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature in Tocumen
Kulim, Malaysia (11,451 miles away); South Tangerang, Indonesia (11,990 miles); and Makassar, Indonesia (11,131 miles) are the far-away foreign places with temperatures most similar to Tocumen (view comparison).
In Tocumen, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in Tocumen begins around November 29 and lasts for 4.5 months, ending around April 14.
The clearest month of the year in Tocumen is January, during which on average the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 51% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around April 14 and lasts for 7.5 months, ending around November 29.
The cloudiest month of the year in Tocumen is July, during which on average the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 95% of the time.
Cloud Cover Categories in Tocumen
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Tocumen varies significantly throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 7.5 months, from April 27 to December 12, with a greater than 23% chance of a given day being a wet day. The month with the most wet days in Tocumen is October, with an average of 12.9 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
The drier season lasts 4.5 months, from December 12 to April 27. The month with the fewest wet days in Tocumen is February, with an average of 0.9 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. The month with the most days of rain alone in Tocumen is October, with an average of 12.9 days. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 44% on November 10.
Daily Chance of Precipitation in Tocumen
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Tocumen experiences extreme seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
The rainy period of the year lasts for 10.0 months, from March 20 to January 18, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. The month with the most rain in Tocumen is October, with an average rainfall of 7.4 inches.
The rainless period of the year lasts for 2.0 months, from January 18 to March 20. The month with the least rain in Tocumen is February, with an average rainfall of 0.2 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall in Tocumen
The length of the day in Tocumen does not vary substantially over the course of the year, staying within 39 minutes of 12 hours throughout. In 2021, the shortest day is December 21, with 11 hours, 36 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 20, with 12 hours, 39 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight in Tocumen
The earliest sunrise is at 5:56 AM on May 27, and the latest sunrise is 42 minutes later at 6:38 AM on January 28. The earliest sunset is at 5:53 PM on November 15, and the latest sunset is 48 minutes later at 6:41 PM on July 12.
Daylight saving time (DST) is not observed in Tocumen during 2021.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight in Tocumen
The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2021. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.
Moon Rise, Set & Phases in Tocumen
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
The perceived humidity level in Tocumen, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, staying within 3% of 97% throughout.
Humidity Comfort Levels in Tocumen
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Tocumen experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 4.8 months, from December 9 to May 2, with average wind speeds of more than 11.4 miles per hour. The windiest month of the year in Tocumen is February, with an average hourly wind speed of 16.0 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 7.2 months, from May 2 to December 9. The calmest month of the year in Tocumen is September, with an average hourly wind speed of 6.6 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed in Tocumen
The predominant average hourly wind direction in Tocumen varies throughout the year.
The wind is most often from the south for 3.4 weeks, from September 25 to October 19, with a peak percentage of 39% on October 7. The wind is most often from the north for 11 months, from October 19 to September 25, with a peak percentage of 95% on January 1.
Wind Direction in Tocumen
Tocumen is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.
The average water temperature experiences some seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The time of year with warmer water lasts for 5.8 months, from May 12 to November 5, with an average temperature above 83°F. The month of the year in Tocumen with the warmest water is June, with an average temperature of 84°F.
The time of year with cooler water lasts for 2.1 months, from January 31 to April 4, with an average temperature below 79°F. The month of the year in Tocumen with the coolest water is March, with an average temperature of 78°F.
Average Water Temperature in Tocumen
To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Tocumen throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.
The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Tocumen for general outdoor tourist activities is from mid December to late March, with a peak score in the third week of January.
Tourism Score in Tocumen
The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Tocumen for hot-weather activities is from late December to late March, with a peak score in the last week of January.
Beach/Pool Score in Tocumen
For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.
Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.
Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.
Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.
Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
Temperatures in Tocumen are sufficiently warm year round that it is not entirely meaningful to discuss the growing season in these terms. We nevertheless include the chart below as an illustration of the distribution of temperatures experienced throughout the year.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Tocumen
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
Growing Degree Days in Tocumen
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 2.8 months, from January 23 to April 16, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 6.0 kWh. The brightest month of the year in Tocumen is March, with an average of 6.6 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 5.6 months, from May 21 to November 10, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 3.7 kWh. The darkest month of the year in Tocumen is July, with an average of 3.0 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in Tocumen
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Tocumen are 9.089 deg latitude, -79.383 deg longitude, and 115 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Tocumen contains significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 600 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 118 feet. Within 10 miles contains significant variations in elevation (3,314 feet). Within 50 miles also contains extreme variations in elevation (3,379 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Tocumen is covered by grassland (46%), trees (24%), and artificial surfaces (22%), within 10 miles by trees (24%) and water (24%), and within 50 miles by water (63%) and trees (20%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Tocumen, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There is only a single weather station, Tocumen International Airport, in our network suitable to be used as a proxy for the historical temperature and dew point records of Tocumen.
At a distance of 2 kilometers from Tocumen, closer than our threshold of 150 kilometers, this station is deemed sufficiently nearby to be relied upon as our primary source for temperature and dew point records.
The station records are corrected for the elevation difference between the station and Tocumen according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
Please note that the station records themselves may additionally have been back-filled using other nearby stations or the MERRA-2 reanalysis.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
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