Average Weather in Panamá Panama
In Panamá, the wet season is overcast, the dry season is windy and partly cloudy, and it is hot and oppressive year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 72°F to 92°F and is rarely below 68°F or above 95°F.
Average High and Low Temperature
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature
In Panamá, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in Panamá begins around November 28 and lasts for 4.5 months, ending around April 14. On January 13, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 52% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 48% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around April 14 and lasts for 7.5 months, ending around November 28. On July 28, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 95% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 5% of the time.
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Panamá varies significantly throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 7.5 months, from April 27 to December 11, with a greater than 25% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 46% on November 8.
The drier season lasts 4.5 months, from December 11 to April 27. The smallest chance of a wet day is 3% on January 31.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 46% on November 8.
Daily Chance of Precipitation
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Panamá experiences extreme seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
The rainy period of the year lasts for 10.0 months, from March 19 to January 18, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around October 31, with an average total accumulation of 7.7 inches.
The rainless period of the year lasts for 2.0 months, from January 18 to March 19. The least rain falls around February 26, with an average total accumulation of 0.2 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall
The length of the day in Panamá does not vary substantially over the course of the year, staying within 39 minutes of 12 hours throughout. In 2017, the shortest day is December 21, with 11 hours, 36 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 12 hours, 39 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight
The earliest sunrise is at 5:57 AM on May 27, and the latest sunrise is 42 minutes later at 6:39 AM on January 28. The earliest sunset is at 5:54 PM on November 14, and the latest sunset is 48 minutes later at 6:42 PM on July 13.
Daylight saving time (DST) is not observed in Panamá during 2017.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
The perceived humidity level in Panamá, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, staying within 4% of 96% throughout.
Humidity Comfort Levels
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Panamá experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 4.7 months, from December 11 to May 2, with average wind speeds of more than 5.5 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is February 26, with an average hourly wind speed of 7.9 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 7.3 months, from May 2 to December 11. The calmest day of the year is September 16, with an average hourly wind speed of 3.2 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed
The predominant average hourly wind direction in Panamá varies throughout the year.
The wind is most often from the south for 3.9 weeks, from September 24 to October 21, with a peak percentage of 40% on October 7. The wind is most often from the north for 11 months, from October 21 to September 24, with a peak percentage of 96% on January 1.
Panamá is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.
The average water temperature experiences some seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The time of year with warmer water lasts for 5.8 months, from May 10 to November 5, with an average temperature above 82°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is June 13, with an average temperature of 84°F.
The time of year with cooler water lasts for 2.2 months, from January 31 to April 5, with an average temperature below 79°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is March 5, with an average temperature of 78°F.
Average Water Temperature
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 2.8 months, from January 23 to April 17, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 5.9 kWh. The brightest day of the year is March 20, with an average of 6.7 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 5.5 months, from May 21 to November 7, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 3.8 kWh. The darkest day of the year is July 25, with an average of 3.0 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Panamá are 8.994 deg latitude, -79.520 deg longitude, and 59 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Panamá contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 364 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 84 feet. Within 10 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (1,624 feet). Within 50 miles contains very significant variations in elevation (3,934 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Panamá is covered by artificial surfaces (63%), water (20%), and grassland (12%), within 10 miles by water (47%) and trees (17%), and within 50 miles by water (61%) and trees (20%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Panamá, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There is only a single weather station, Tocumen International Airport, in our network suitable to be used as a proxy for the historical temperature and dew point records of Panamá.
At a distance of 17 kilometers from Panamá, closer than our threshold of 150 kilometers, this station is deemed sufficiently nearby to be relied upon as our primary source for temperature and dew point records.
The station records are corrected for the elevation difference between the station and Panamá according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
Please note that the station records themselves may additionally have been back-filled using other nearby stations or the MERRA-2 reanalysis.
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.