Average Weather in El Peñón Panama
In El Peñón, the wet season is warm and overcast, the dry season is hot and partly cloudy, and it is oppressive year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 71°F to 91°F and is rarely below 68°F or above 94°F.
Based on the beach/pool score, the best time of year to visit El Peñón for hot-weather activities is from mid December to late March.
The hot season lasts for 1.8 months, from March 1 to April 27, with an average daily high temperature above 89°F. The hottest day of the year is April 3, with an average high of 91°F and low of 73°F.
The cool season lasts for 6.4 months, from June 11 to December 23, with an average daily high temperature below 84°F. The coldest day of the year is January 20, with an average low of 71°F and high of 85°F.
Average High and Low Temperature
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
In El Peñón, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in El Peñón begins around November 25 and lasts for 4.6 months, ending around April 14. On January 3, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 54% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 46% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around April 14 and lasts for 7.4 months, ending around November 25. On July 26, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 95% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 5% of the time.
Cloud Cover Categories
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in El Peñón varies significantly throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 7.3 months, from April 28 to December 7, with a greater than 27% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 51% on October 24.
The drier season lasts 4.7 months, from December 7 to April 28. The smallest chance of a wet day is 4% on February 14.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 51% on October 24.
Daily Chance of Precipitation
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. El Peñón experiences extreme seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
The rainy period of the year lasts for 10 months, from March 14 to January 20, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around October 20, with an average total accumulation of 7.9 inches.
The rainless period of the year lasts for 1.8 months, from January 20 to March 14. The least rain falls around February 13, with an average total accumulation of 0.3 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall
The length of the day in El Peñón does not vary substantially over the course of the year, staying within 36 minutes of 12 hours throughout. In 2019, the shortest day is December 21, with 11 hours, 38 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 12 hours, 37 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight
The earliest sunrise is at 6:04 AM on May 26, and the latest sunrise is 40 minutes later at 6:44 AM on January 30. The earliest sunset is at 6:00 PM on November 14, and the latest sunset is 46 minutes later at 6:46 PM on July 14.
Daylight saving time (DST) is not observed in El Peñón during 2019.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
The perceived humidity level in El Peñón, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, staying within 4% of 96% throughout.
Humidity Comfort Levels
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in El Peñón experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 4.0 months, from December 23 to April 24, with average wind speeds of more than 5.8 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is February 27, with an average hourly wind speed of 8.0 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 8.0 months, from April 24 to December 23. The calmest day of the year is June 13, with an average hourly wind speed of 3.5 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed
The predominant average hourly wind direction in El Peñón varies throughout the year.
The wind is most often from the west for 2.2 months, from September 1 to November 8, with a peak percentage of 56% on October 13. The wind is most often from the north for 9.8 months, from November 8 to September 1, with a peak percentage of 96% on January 1.
El Peñón is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.The average water temperature does not vary significantly over the course of the year, remaining within 2°F of 82°F throughout.
Average Water Temperature
Best Time of Year to Visit
To characterize how pleasant the weather is in El Peñón throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.
The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit El Peñón for general outdoor tourist activities is from mid December to late February, with a peak score in the second week of January.
The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit El Peñón for hot-weather activities is from mid December to late March, with a peak score in the third week of January.
For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.
Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.
Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.
Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.
Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
Temperatures in El Peñón are sufficiently warm year round that it is not entirely meaningful to discuss the growing season in these terms. We nevertheless include the chart below as an illustration of the distribution of temperatures experienced throughout the year.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
Growing Degree Days
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 2.8 months, from January 20 to April 15, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 6.0 kWh. The brightest day of the year is March 20, with an average of 6.7 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 5.6 months, from May 20 to November 8, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 3.9 kWh. The darkest day of the year is July 25, with an average of 3.2 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of El Peñón are 8.350 deg latitude, -80.976 deg longitude, and 728 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of El Peñón contains very significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 1,378 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 721 feet. Within 10 miles contains very significant variations in elevation (4,606 feet). Within 50 miles also contains extreme variations in elevation (7,274 feet).
The area within 2 miles of El Peñón is covered by trees (50%) and grassland (39%), within 10 miles by grassland (53%) and trees (31%), and within 50 miles by trees (31%) and grassland (29%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in El Peñón, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There is only a single weather station, Albrook "Marcos A. Gelabert" International Airport, in our network suitable to be used as a proxy for the historical temperature and dew point records of El Peñón.
At a distance of 175 kilometers from El Peñón, further than our threshold of 150 kilometers, this station is deemed insufficiently nearby to be relied upon as our primary source for temperature and dew point records. Consequently, the station records are blended with interpolated values from NASA's MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis , and both are corrected for elevation differences according to the International Standard Atmosphere .
The weight assigned to the MERRA-2 value depends on the distance from El Peñón to the nearest station, increasing from 0% at 150 kilometers to 100% at 200 kilometers. In this case, the MERRA-2 weight is 34%, making the weight assigned to the weather station 66%.
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.