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Average Weather at Grand Marais Minnesota, United States

At Grand Marais, the summers are comfortable; the winters are freezing, snowy, and windy; and it is partly cloudy year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 8°F to 69°F and is rarely below -13°F or above 78°F.

Climate Summary

freezingvery coldcoldcoolcomfortablecoolcoldvery coldfreezingJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec69%69%37%37%overcastclearprecipitation: 3.1 inprecipitation: 3.1 in0.4 in0.4 inmuggy: 4%muggy: 4%0%0%drydrytourism score: 6.3tourism score: 6.30.00.0
Click on each chart for more information.

Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Grand Marais for warm-weather activities is from mid July to late August.

Temperature

The warm season lasts for 3.1 months, from June 16 to September 19, with an average daily high temperature above 60°F. The hottest day of the year is August 1, with an average high of 69°F and low of 55°F.

The cold season lasts for 3.3 months, from December 1 to March 11, with an average daily high temperature below 33°F. The coldest day of the year is January 28, with an average low of 8°F and high of 24°F.

Average High and Low Temperature

The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature

Average Hourly Temperature at Grand MaraisJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM4 AM8 AM12 PM4 PM8 PM12 AMfrigidfreezingfreezingvery coldcoldcoldcoolvery coldfrigidcomfortable
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < very cold < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Gornozavodsk, Russia (5,207 miles away) is the far-away foreign place with temperatures most similar to Grand Marais (view comparison).

Clouds

At Grand Marais, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year at Grand Marais begins around June 13 and lasts for 3.9 months, ending around October 11. On August 2, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 69% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 31% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around October 11 and lasts for 8.1 months, ending around June 13. On January 19, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 63% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 37% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories

Cloud Cover Categories at Grand MaraisclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Aug 269%Aug 269%Jan 1937%Jan 1937%Jun 1353%Jun 1353%Oct 1153%Oct 1153%clearmostly clearpartly cloudymostly cloudyovercast
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds: clear < 20% < mostly clear < 40% < partly cloudy < 60% < mostly cloudy < 80% < overcast.

Precipitation

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days at Grand Marais varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 6.0 months, from April 23 to October 24, with a greater than 22% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 36% on July 2.

The drier season lasts 6.0 months, from October 24 to April 23. The smallest chance of a wet day is 8% on February 4.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation at Grand Marais changes throughout the year.

Rain alone is the most common for 8.7 months, from March 12 to December 3. The highest chance of a day with rain alone is 36% on July 2.

Snow alone is the most common for 3.3 months, from December 3 to March 12. The highest chance of a day with snow alone is 9% on January 4.

Daily Chance of Precipitation

Daily Chance of Precipitation at Grand MaraissnowrainsnowJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Jul 236%Jul 236%Feb 48%Feb 48%Mar 1213%Mar 1213%Dec 315%Dec 315%Apr 2322%Apr 2322%Oct 2422%Oct 2422%rainsnowmixed
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Grand Marais experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

The rainy period of the year lasts for 9.0 months, from March 14 to December 12, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around June 22, with an average total accumulation of 3.1 inches.

The rainless period of the year lasts for 3.0 months, from December 12 to March 14. The least rain falls around January 26, with an average total accumulation of 0.1 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall

The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Snowfall

We report snowfall in liquid-equivalent terms. The actual depth of new snowfall is typically between 5 and 10 times the liquid-equivalent amount, assuming the ground is frozen. Colder, drier snow tends to be on the higher end of that range and warmer, wetter snow on the lower end.

As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Grand Marais experiences some seasonal variation in monthly liquid-equivalent snowfall.

The snowy period of the year lasts for 6.0 months, from October 28 to April 30, with a sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent snowfall of at least 0.1 inches. The most snow falls during the 31 days centered around January 4, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.4 inches.

The snowless period of the year lasts for 6.0 months, from April 30 to October 28. The least snow falls around August 4, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall at Grand MaraissnowsnowJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0.0 in0.5 in1.0 in1.5 in2.0 in2.5 in3.0 in3.5 inJan 40.4 inJan 40.4 inAug 40.0 inAug 40.0 inMar 90.3 inMar 90.3 inOct 280.1 inOct 280.1 inApr 300.1 inApr 300.1 in
The average liquid-equivalent snowfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average rainfall.

Sun

The length of the day at Grand Marais varies extremely over the course of the year. In 2017, the shortest day is December 21, with 8 hours, 24 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 20, with 16 hours, 1 minute of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight

Hours of Daylight and Twilight at Grand MaraisJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 hr24 hr4 hr20 hr8 hr16 hr12 hr12 hr16 hr8 hr20 hr4 hr24 hr0 hr12 hr, 7 minMar 2012 hr, 7 minMar 2016 hr, 1 minJun 2016 hr, 1 minJun 2012 hr, 10 minSep 2212 hr, 10 minSep 228 hr, 24 minDec 218 hr, 24 minDec 21nightnightday
The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 5:02 AM on June 15, and the latest sunrise is 2 hours, 48 minutes later at 7:50 AM on November 4. The earliest sunset is at 4:09 PM on December 11, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 55 minutes later at 9:03 PM on June 25.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed at Grand Marais during 2017, starting in the spring on March 12, lasting 7.8 months, and ending in the fall on November 5.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time at Grand MaraisJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJun 155:02 AMJun 155:02 AM9:03 PMJun 259:03 PMJun 25Dec 114:09 PMDec 114:09 PM7:50 AMNov 47:50 AMNov 4Mar 12DSTMar 12DSTDSTNov 5DSTNov 5daynightnightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunset
The solar day over the course of the year 2017. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

The perceived humidity level at Grand Marais, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, staying within 2% of 2% throughout.

Humidity Comfort Levels

Humidity Comfort Levels at Grand MaraisJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Nov 280%Nov 280%Aug 144%Aug 144%drydrycomfortablecomfortable
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point: dry < 55°F < comfortable < 60°F < humid < 65°F < muggy < 70°F < oppressive < 75°F < miserable.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed at Grand Marais experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 6.5 months, from September 27 to April 12, with average wind speeds of more than 10.0 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is January 4, with an average hourly wind speed of 12.7 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 5.5 months, from April 12 to September 27. The calmest day of the year is July 24, with an average hourly wind speed of 7.3 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed

Average Wind Speed at Grand MaraiswindywindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph2 mph4 mph6 mph8 mph10 mph12 mph14 mph16 mph18 mphJan 412.7 mphJan 412.7 mphJul 247.3 mphJul 247.3 mphSep 2710.0 mphSep 2710.0 mphApr 1210.0 mphApr 1210.0 mph
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction at Grand Marais varies throughout the year.

The wind is most often from the north for 3.0 weeks, from January 7 to January 28 and for 1.7 months, from February 14 to April 5, with a peak percentage of 38% on January 15. The wind is most often from the west for 2.4 weeks, from January 28 to February 14 and for 6.9 months, from June 11 to January 7, with a peak percentage of 38% on January 30. The wind is most often from the east for 2.2 months, from April 5 to June 11, with a peak percentage of 36% on May 21.

Wind Direction

Wind Direction at Grand MaraisNWNEWJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%westsoutheastnorth
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions (north, east, south, and west), excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Water Temperature

Grand Marais is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 1.8 months, from July 26 to September 19, with an average temperature above 55°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 19, with an average temperature of 60°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 5.8 months, from December 12 to June 5, with an average temperature below 39°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is March 7, with an average temperature of 34°F.

Average Water Temperature

Average Water Temperature at Grand MaraiswarmcoolcoolJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec30°F35°F40°F45°F50°F55°F60°F65°F70°FAug 1960°FAug 1960°F34°FMar 734°FMar 7Dec 1239°FDec 1239°FJun 539°FJun 539°F
The daily average water temperature (purple line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Best Time of Year to Visit

To characterize how pleasant the weather is at Grand Marais throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Grand Marais for general outdoor tourist activities is from mid July to late August, with a peak score in the first week of August.

Tourism Score

Tourism Score at Grand MaraisJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec02468106.36.30.00.0 precipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperaturetourism score
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Grand Marais for hot-weather activities is from late July to mid August, with a peak score in the first week of August.

Beach/Pool Score

Beach/Pool Score at Grand MaraisJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec02468101.51.50.00.0 precipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperaturebeach/pool score
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Growing Season

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season at Grand Marais typically lasts for 4.8 months (145 days), from around May 15 to around October 8, rarely starting before April 25 or after June 6, and rarely ending before September 21 or after October 26.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season at Grand Maraisgrowing seasonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%May 1550%May 1550%Oct 850%Oct 850%Jun 690%Jun 690%Sep 2190%Sep 2190%Apr 2510%Apr 2510%Oct 2610%Oct 2610%0%Feb 200%Feb 20Jul 30100%Jul 30100%frigidfreezingvery coldcoldcoolcomfortable
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < very cold < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms at Grand Marais should appear around June 12, only rarely appearing before May 25 or after June 28.

Growing Degree Days

Growing Degree Days at Grand MaraisJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F200°F400°F600°F800°F1,000°F1,200°FJun 1290°FJun 1290°FSep 10900°FSep 10900°FDec 311,046°FDec 311,046°F
The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.7 months, from May 1 to August 23, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 5.6 kWh. The brightest day of the year is July 10, with an average of 6.8 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from October 27 to February 13, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 2.2 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 23, with an average of 1.1 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy at Grand MaraisbrightdarkdarkJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 kWh1 kWh2 kWh3 kWh4 kWh5 kWh6 kWh7 kWh8 kWh9 kWhJul 106.8 kWhJul 106.8 kWhDec 231.1 kWhDec 231.1 kWhMay 15.6 kWhMay 15.6 kWhAug 235.6 kWhAug 235.6 kWhOct 272.2 kWhOct 272.2 kWhFeb 132.2 kWhFeb 132.2 kWh
The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Grand Marais are 47.747 deg latitude, -90.344 deg longitude, and 600 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Grand Marais contains very significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 948 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 776 feet. Within 10 miles also contains very significant variations in elevation (1,499 feet). Within 50 miles also contains very significant variations in elevation (1,867 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Grand Marais is covered by water (56%), trees (31%), and herbaceous vegetation (11%), within 10 miles by water (52%) and trees (46%), and within 50 miles by water (53%) and trees (45%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather at Grand Marais, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

Grand Marais has a weather station that reported reliably enough during the analysis period that we have included it in our network. When available, historical temperature and dew point measurements are taken directly from this weather station. These records are obtained from NOAA's Integrated Surface Hourly data set, falling back on ICAO METAR records as required.

In the case of missing or erroneous measurements from this station, we fall back on records from nearby stations, adjusted according to typical seasonal and diurnal intra-station differences. For a given day of the year and hour of the day, the fallback station is selected to minimize the prediction error over the years for which there are measurements for both stations.

The stations on which we may fall back include but are not limited to Grand Marais-Cook County Airport, Silver Bay Municipal Airport, Thunder Bay International Airport, Thunder Bay, Gogebic–Iron County Airport, John F Kennedy Memorial Airport, Welcome Island, and Ely Municipal Airport.

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.