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Average Weather at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget Norway

At Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget, the summers are short, cool, and mostly cloudy; the winters are long, very cold, windy, and overcast; and it is wet year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 31°F to 63°F and is rarely below 19°F or above 73°F.

Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget for warm-weather activities is from mid July to mid August.

Climate Summary

very coldcoldcoolcoldvery coldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecNowNow45%45%23%23%overcastclearprecipitation: 5.4 inprecipitation: 5.4 in2.4 in2.4 inmuggy: 0%muggy: 0%0%0%drydrytourism score: 4.6tourism score: 4.60.00.0
Click on each chart for more information.

Temperature

The warm season lasts for 2.8 months, from June 19 to September 11, with an average daily high temperature above 58°F. The hottest day of the year is August 6, with an average high of 63°F and low of 53°F.

The cold season lasts for 4.4 months, from November 16 to March 27, with an average daily high temperature below 44°F. The coldest day of the year is February 9, with an average low of 31°F and high of 39°F.

Average High and Low Temperature

Average High and Low Temperature at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetwarmcoldcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F10°F10°F20°F20°F30°F30°F40°F40°F50°F50°F60°F60°F70°F70°F80°F80°F90°F90°F100°F100°FFeb 939°FFeb 939°FAug 663°FAug 663°F31°F31°F53°F53°FJun 1958°FJun 1958°FSep 1158°FSep 1158°FNov 1644°FNov 1644°FMar 2744°FMar 2744°F48°F48°F48°F48°F36°F36°F34°F34°FNowNow
The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature

Average Hourly Temperature at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM12 AM4 AM4 AM8 AM8 AM12 PM12 PM4 PM4 PM8 PM8 PM12 AM12 AMNowNowvery coldvery coldcoldcool
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Ketchikan, Alaska, United States (3,973 miles away) is the far-away foreign place with temperatures most similar to Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget (view comparison).

Clouds

At Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget begins around April 8 and lasts for 6.1 months, ending around October 12. On May 12, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 45% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 55% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around October 12 and lasts for 5.9 months, ending around April 8. On January 24, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 77% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 23% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories

Cloud Cover Categories at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%May 1245%May 1245%Jan 2423%Jan 2423%Apr 834%Apr 834%Oct 1234%Oct 1234%NowNowclearmostly clearpartly cloudymostly cloudyovercast
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds.

Precipitation

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 7.5 months, from August 7 to March 24, with a greater than 44% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 56% on January 23.

The drier season lasts 4.5 months, from March 24 to August 7. The smallest chance of a wet day is 33% on May 3.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 54% on September 19.

Daily Chance of Precipitation

Daily Chance of Precipitation at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetwetwetdryJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Jan 2356%Jan 2356%May 333%May 333%Jan 153%Jan 153%Aug 744%Aug 744%Mar 2444%Mar 2444%NowNowmixedrainsnow
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

Rain falls throughout the year at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around September 23, with an average total accumulation of 5.0 inches.

The least rain falls around May 9, with an average total accumulation of 2.4 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall

Average Monthly Rainfall at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in0 in2 in2 in4 in4 in6 in6 in8 in8 in10 in10 inSep 235.0 inSep 235.0 inMay 92.4 inMay 92.4 inNov 254.9 inNov 254.9 inNowNow
The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Snowfall

We report snowfall in liquid-equivalent terms. The actual depth of new snowfall is typically between 5 and 10 times the liquid-equivalent amount, assuming the ground is frozen. Colder, drier snow tends to be on the higher end of that range and warmer, wetter snow on the lower end.

As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget experiences some seasonal variation in monthly liquid-equivalent snowfall.

The snowy period of the year lasts for 5.4 months, from November 8 to April 22, with a sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent snowfall of at least 0.1 inches. The most snow falls during the 31 days centered around February 9, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.7 inches.

The snowless period of the year lasts for 6.6 months, from April 22 to November 8. The least snow falls around July 25, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetsnowsnowJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in0 in1 in1 in2 in2 in3 in3 in4 in4 in5 in5 inFeb 90.7 inFeb 90.7 inJul 250.0 inJul 250.0 inDec 220.6 inDec 220.6 inNov 80.1 inNov 80.1 inApr 220.1 inApr 220.1 in
The average liquid-equivalent snowfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average rainfall.

Sun

The length of the day at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget varies extremely over the course of the year. In 2021, the shortest day is December 21, with 4 hours, 39 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 20 hours, 23 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight

Hours of Daylight and Twilight at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 hr24 hr4 hr20 hr8 hr16 hr12 hr12 hr16 hr8 hr20 hr4 hr24 hr0 hr12 hr, 9 minMar 2012 hr, 9 minMar 2020 hr, 23 minJun 2120 hr, 23 minJun 2112 hr, 17 minSep 2212 hr, 17 minSep 224 hr, 39 minDec 214 hr, 39 minDec 21nightnightdayNowNow
The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 3:18 AM on June 20, and the latest sunrise is 6 hours, 49 minutes later at 10:08 AM on December 25. The earliest sunset is at 2:45 PM on December 17, and the latest sunset is 8 hours, 56 minutes later at 11:42 PM on June 22.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget during 2021, starting in the spring on March 28, lasting 7.1 months, and ending in the fall on October 31.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJun 203:18 AMJun 203:18 AM11:42 PMJun 2211:42 PMJun 22Dec 172:45 PMDec 172:45 PM10:08 AMDec 2510:08 AMDec 25Mar 28DSTMar 28DSTDSTOct 31DSTOct 31daynightnightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunsetNowNow
The solar day over the course of the year 2021. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

Moon

The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2021. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.

Moon Rise, Set & Phases

The time in which the moon is above the horizon (light blue area), with new moons (dark gray lines) and full moons (blue lines) indicated. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

The perceived humidity level at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, remaining a virtually constant 0% throughout.

Humidity Comfort Levels

Humidity Comfort Levels at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Jan 160%Jan 160%Jul 180%Jul 180%NowNowdrydry
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 5.9 months, from October 15 to April 10, with average wind speeds of more than 9.1 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is January 21, with an average hourly wind speed of 12.1 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 6.1 months, from April 10 to October 15. The calmest day of the year is August 3, with an average hourly wind speed of 6.1 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed

Average Wind Speed at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetwindywindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph0 mph2 mph2 mph4 mph4 mph6 mph6 mph8 mph8 mph10 mph10 mph12 mph12 mph14 mph14 mph16 mph16 mph18 mph18 mph20 mph20 mphJan 2112.1 mphJan 2112.1 mphAug 36.1 mphAug 36.1 mphOct 159.1 mphOct 159.1 mphApr 109.1 mphApr 109.1 mphNowNow
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget varies throughout the year.

The wind is most often from the west for 1.3 months, from April 18 to May 26 and for 2.8 months, from June 29 to September 22, with a peak percentage of 39% on July 18. The wind is most often from the north for 1.1 months, from May 26 to June 29, with a peak percentage of 41% on June 16. The wind is most often from the south for 6.9 months, from September 22 to April 18, with a peak percentage of 47% on January 1.

Wind Direction

Wind Direction at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetSWNWSJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%NowNowwestsouthnortheast
northeastsouthwest
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions, excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1.0 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Water Temperature

Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences some seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 2.6 months, from July 10 to September 27, with an average temperature above 54°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 15, with an average temperature of 57°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 4.5 months, from December 25 to May 8, with an average temperature below 45°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is March 13, with an average temperature of 42°F.

Average Water Temperature

Average Water Temperature at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetwarmcoolJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec40°F40°F45°F45°F50°F50°F55°F55°F60°F60°FAug 1557°FAug 1557°F42°FMar 1342°FMar 13Jul 1054°FJul 1054°FSep 2754°FSep 2754°FDec 2545°FDec 2545°FMay 845°FMay 845°FNowNow
The daily average water temperature (purple line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Best Time of Year to Visit

To characterize how pleasant the weather is at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget for general outdoor tourist activities is from mid July to mid August, with a peak score in the first week of August.

Tourism Score

Tourism Score at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernbergetbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810104.64.60.00.0NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperature tourism score
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget for hot-weather activities is from mid July to mid August, with a peak score in the last week of July.

Beach/Pool Score

Beach/Pool Score at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810100.70.70.00.0precipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperature
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Growing Season

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget typically lasts for 6.2 months (189 days), from around April 22 to around October 28, rarely starting before March 30 or after May 14, and rarely ending before October 5 or after November 26.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernbergetgrowing seasonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%50%Apr 2250%Apr 2250%Oct 2850%Oct 2890%May 1490%May 1490%Oct 590%Oct 510%Mar 3010%Mar 3010%Nov 2610%Nov 260%Feb 10%Feb 1Jul 22100%Jul 22100%NowNowfreezingvery coldcoldcoolcomfortable
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget should appear around June 2, only rarely appearing before May 18 or after June 27.

Growing Degree Days

Growing Degree Days at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F200°F200°F400°F400°F600°F600°F800°F800°F1,000°F1,000°FJun 290°FJun 290°FDec 31816°FDec 31816°FNowNow
The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.1 months, from May 3 to August 7, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 4.4 kWh. The brightest day of the year is June 22, with an average of 5.5 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 4.7 months, from October 12 to March 2, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 1.1 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 22, with an average of 0.1 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy at Kristiansund Airport, KvernbergetbrightdarkdarkJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 kWh0 kWh1 kWh1 kWh2 kWh2 kWh3 kWh3 kWh4 kWh4 kWh5 kWh5 kWh6 kWh6 kWh7 kWh7 kWh8 kWh8 kWhJun 225.5 kWhJun 225.5 kWhDec 220.1 kWhDec 220.1 kWhMay 34.4 kWhMay 34.4 kWhAug 74.4 kWhAug 74.4 kWhOct 121.1 kWhOct 121.1 kWhMar 21.1 kWhMar 21.1 kWhNowNow
The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget are 63.112 deg latitude, 7.825 deg longitude, and 164 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget contains significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 659 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 105 feet. Within 10 miles contains significant variations in elevation (2,759 feet). Within 50 miles contains large variations in elevation (6,125 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget is covered by trees (31%), water (24%), sparse vegetation (21%), and artificial surfaces (18%), within 10 miles by water (62%) and trees (24%), and within 50 miles by water (51%) and trees (17%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather at Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

Kristiansund Airport, Kvernberget has a weather station that reported reliably enough during the analysis period that we have included it in our network. When available, historical temperature and dew point measurements are taken directly from this weather station. These records are obtained from NOAA's Integrated Surface Hourly data set, falling back on ICAO METAR records as required.

In the case of missing or erroneous measurements from this station, we fall back on records from nearby stations, adjusted according to typical seasonal and diurnal intra-station differences. For a given day of the year and hour of the day, the fallback station is selected to minimize the prediction error over the years for which there are measurements for both stations.

The stations on which we may fall back are Draugen; Ålesund Airport, Vigra; Ørland Airport; and Trondheim Airport, Værnes.

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.