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Climate and Average Weather Year Round at Shannon Airport Virginia, United States

At Shannon Airport, the summers are hot and muggy, the winters are short and very cold, and it is partly cloudy year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 27°F to 90°F and is rarely below 14°F or above 98°F.

Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Shannon Airport for warm-weather activities is from mid August to early October.

Climate at Shannon Airport

coldcoolwarmhotwarmcoolcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecNowNow65%65%47%47%clearovercastprecipitation: 3.5 inprecipitation: 3.5 in2.6 in2.6 inmuggy: 73%muggy: 73%0%0%drydrytourism score: 6.3tourism score: 6.30.50.5
Shannon Airport weather by month. Click on each chart for more information.

Average Temperature at Shannon Airport

The hot season lasts for 3.5 months, from May 28 to September 14, with an average daily high temperature above 81°F. The hottest day of the year is July 20, with an average high of 90°F and low of 69°F.

The cold season lasts for 3.0 months, from December 1 to March 1, with an average daily high temperature below 55°F. The coldest day of the year is January 29, with an average low of 27°F and high of 47°F.

Average High and Low Temperature at Shannon Airport

Average High and Low Temperature at Shannon AirporthotcoldcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F10°F10°F20°F20°F30°F30°F40°F40°F50°F50°F60°F60°F70°F70°F80°F80°F90°F90°F100°F100°FJan 2947°FJan 2947°FJul 2090°FJul 2090°F27°F27°F69°F69°FMay 2881°FMay 2881°FSep 1481°FSep 1481°FDec 155°FDec 155°FMar 155°FMar 155°F59°F59°F61°F61°F35°F35°F33°F33°FNowNow
The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature at Shannon Airport

Average Hourly Temperature at Shannon AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM12 AM4 AM4 AM8 AM8 AM12 PM12 PM4 PM4 PM8 PM8 PM12 AM12 AMNowNowfreezingvery coldvery coldvery coldcoldcoldcoolcoolcomfortablewarmhot
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Dāmghān, Iran (6,451 miles away) is the far-away foreign place with temperatures most similar to Shannon Airport (view comparison).

Compare Shannon Airport to another city:

Clouds

At Shannon Airport, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year at Shannon Airport begins around July 5 and lasts for 4.3 months, ending around November 14. On September 23, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 65% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 35% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around November 14 and lasts for 7.7 months, ending around July 5. On December 24, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 53% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 47% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories at Shannon Airport

Cloud Cover Categories at Shannon AirportclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Sep 2365%Sep 2365%Dec 2447%Dec 2447%Jul 556%Jul 556%NowNowclearmostly clearpartly cloudymostly cloudyovercast
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds.

Precipitation

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days at Shannon Airport varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 4.0 months, from April 26 to August 25, with a greater than 30% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 40% on July 14.

The drier season lasts 8.0 months, from August 25 to April 26. The smallest chance of a wet day is 20% on October 20.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 40% on July 14.

Daily Chance of Precipitation at Shannon Airport

Daily Chance of Precipitation at Shannon AirportwetdrydryJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Jul 1440%Jul 1440%Oct 2020%Oct 2020%Jan 122%Jan 122%Apr 2630%Apr 2630%Aug 2530%Aug 2530%NowNowrainsnow
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Shannon Airport experiences some seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

Rain falls throughout the year at Shannon Airport. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around May 19, with an average total accumulation of 3.5 inches.

The least rain falls around January 30, with an average total accumulation of 2.0 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall at Shannon Airport

Average Monthly Rainfall at Shannon AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in0 in2 in2 in4 in4 in6 in6 in8 in8 inMay 193.5 inMay 193.5 inJan 302.0 inJan 302.0 inSep 293.5 inSep 293.5 inJul 243.3 inJul 243.3 inNowNow
The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Snowfall

We report snowfall in liquid-equivalent terms. The actual depth of new snowfall is typically between 5 and 10 times the liquid-equivalent amount, assuming the ground is frozen. Colder, drier snow tends to be on the higher end of that range and warmer, wetter snow on the lower end.

As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Shannon Airport experiences some seasonal variation in monthly liquid-equivalent snowfall.

The snowy period of the year lasts for 4.0 months, from November 21 to March 21, with a sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent snowfall of at least 0.1 inches. The most snow falls during the 31 days centered around January 30, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.6 inches.

The snowless period of the year lasts for 8.0 months, from March 21 to November 21. The least snow falls around July 19, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall at Shannon Airport

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall at Shannon AirportsnowsnowJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in0 in1 in1 in2 in2 in3 in3 in4 in4 inJan 300.6 inJan 300.6 inJul 190.0 inJul 190.0 inNov 210.1 inNov 210.1 inMar 210.1 inMar 210.1 inNowNow
The average liquid-equivalent snowfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average rainfall.

Sun

The length of the day at Shannon Airport varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2021, the shortest day is December 21, with 9 hours, 30 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 20, with 14 hours, 50 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight at Shannon Airport

Hours of Daylight and Twilight at Shannon AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 hr24 hr4 hr20 hr8 hr16 hr12 hr12 hr16 hr8 hr20 hr4 hr24 hr0 hr12 hr, 7 minMar 2012 hr, 7 minMar 2014 hr, 50 minJun 2014 hr, 50 minJun 2012 hr, 9 minSep 2212 hr, 9 minSep 229 hr, 30 minDec 219 hr, 30 minDec 21nightnightdayNowNow
The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 5:45 AM on June 13, and the latest sunrise is 1 hour, 56 minutes later at 7:41 AM on November 6. The earliest sunset is at 4:49 PM on December 7, and the latest sunset is 3 hours, 48 minutes later at 8:37 PM on June 27.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed at Shannon Airport during 2021, starting in the spring on March 14, lasting 7.8 months, and ending in the fall on November 7.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time at Shannon Airport

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time at Shannon AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJun 135:45 AMJun 135:45 AM8:37 PMJun 278:37 PMJun 27Dec 74:49 PMDec 74:49 PM7:41 AMNov 67:41 AMNov 6Mar 14DSTMar 14DSTDSTNov 7DSTNov 7daynightnightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunsetNowNow
The solar day over the course of the year 2021. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

Moon

The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2021. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.

Moon Rise, Set & Phases at Shannon Airport

The time in which the moon is above the horizon (light blue area), with new moons (dark gray lines) and full moons (blue lines) indicated. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

Shannon Airport experiences extreme seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.

The muggier period of the year lasts for 4.3 months, from May 20 to September 30, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 18% of the time. The muggiest day of the year is August 2, with muggy conditions 73% of the time.

The least muggy day of the year is January 28, when muggy conditions are essentially unheard of.

Humidity Comfort Levels at Shannon Airport

Humidity Comfort Levels at Shannon AirportmuggyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Jan 280%Jan 280%Aug 273%Aug 273%May 2018%May 2018%Sep 3018%Sep 3018%NowNowoppressiveoppressivemuggymuggydrydrymiserablemiserablehumidhumid
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed at Shannon Airport experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 6.3 months, from October 28 to May 6, with average wind speeds of more than 5.0 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is February 26, with an average hourly wind speed of 6.3 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 5.7 months, from May 6 to October 28. The calmest day of the year is August 1, with an average hourly wind speed of 3.7 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed at Shannon Airport

Average Wind Speed at Shannon AirportwindywindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph0 mph1 mph1 mph2 mph2 mph3 mph3 mph4 mph4 mph5 mph5 mph6 mph6 mph7 mph7 mph8 mph8 mph9 mph9 mph10 mph10 mphFeb 266.3 mphFeb 266.3 mphAug 13.7 mphAug 13.7 mphOct 285.0 mphOct 285.0 mphMay 65.0 mphMay 65.0 mphNowNow
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction at Shannon Airport varies throughout the year.

The wind is most often from the north for 2.3 months, from January 25 to April 3 and for 1.9 months, from September 15 to November 13, with a peak percentage of 35% on March 10. The wind is most often from the south for 3.0 months, from April 3 to July 3; for 1.9 months, from July 19 to September 15; and for 1.6 weeks, from November 13 to November 24, with a peak percentage of 34% on July 30. The wind is most often from the west for 2.3 weeks, from July 3 to July 19 and for 2.0 months, from November 24 to January 25, with a peak percentage of 34% on July 13.

Wind Direction at Shannon Airport

Wind Direction at Shannon AirportWNSWSNSWJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%NowNowwestsouthnortheast
northeastsouthwest
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions, excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1.0 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Water Temperature

Shannon Airport is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 3.4 months, from June 22 to October 2, with an average temperature above 69°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 8, with an average temperature of 77°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 3.4 months, from December 21 to April 3, with an average temperature below 45°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is February 6, with an average temperature of 37°F.

Average Water Temperature at Shannon Airport

Average Water Temperature at Shannon AirportwarmcoolJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec30°F30°F40°F40°F50°F50°F60°F60°F70°F70°F80°F80°FAug 877°FAug 877°F37°FFeb 637°FFeb 6Jun 2269°FJun 2269°FOct 269°FOct 269°FDec 2145°FDec 2145°FApr 345°FApr 345°FNowNow
The daily average water temperature (purple line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Best Time of Year to Visit

To characterize how pleasant the weather is at Shannon Airport throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Shannon Airport for general outdoor tourist activities is from mid August to early October, with a peak score in the first week of September.

Tourism Score at Shannon Airport

Tourism Score at Shannon Airportbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810106.36.30.50.55.15.1NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperature tourism score
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Shannon Airport for hot-weather activities is from mid June to early September, with a peak score in the second week of August.

Beach/Pool Score at Shannon Airport

Beach/Pool Score at Shannon Airportbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810105.65.60.10.1NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperature beach/pool score
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Growing Season

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season at Shannon Airport typically lasts for 6.7 months (205 days), from around April 6 to around October 29, rarely starting before March 19 or after April 24, and rarely ending before October 11 or after November 16.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season at Shannon Airport

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season at Shannon Airportgrowing seasonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%50%Apr 650%Apr 650%Oct 2950%Oct 2990%Apr 2490%Apr 2490%Oct 1190%Oct 1110%Mar 1910%Mar 1910%Nov 1610%Nov 160%Dec 250%Dec 25Jul 15100%Jul 15100%NowNowfreezingvery coldcoldcoolcomfortablewarmhotfrigid
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms at Shannon Airport should appear around March 7, only rarely appearing before February 15 or after March 26.

Growing Degree Days at Shannon Airport

Growing Degree Days at Shannon AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F500°F500°F1,000°F1,000°F1,500°F1,500°F2,000°F2,000°F2,500°F2,500°F3,000°F3,000°F3,500°F3,500°F4,000°F4,000°F4,500°F4,500°FMar 786°FMar 786°FMay 27900°FMay 27900°FJul 41,800°FJul 41,800°FDec 314,352°FDec 314,352°FNowNow
The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.8 months, from April 27 to August 20, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 6.0 kWh. The brightest day of the year is June 23, with an average of 6.9 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 3.1 months, from November 6 to February 9, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 3.1 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 24, with an average of 2.1 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy at Shannon Airport

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy at Shannon AirportbrightdarkdarkJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 kWh0 kWh1 kWh1 kWh2 kWh2 kWh3 kWh3 kWh4 kWh4 kWh5 kWh5 kWh6 kWh6 kWh7 kWh7 kWh8 kWh8 kWh9 kWh9 kWhJun 236.9 kWhJun 236.9 kWhDec 242.1 kWhDec 242.1 kWhApr 276.0 kWhApr 276.0 kWhAug 206.0 kWhAug 206.0 kWhNov 63.1 kWhNov 63.1 kWhFeb 93.1 kWhFeb 93.1 kWhNowNow
The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Shannon Airport are 38.266 deg latitude, -77.449 deg longitude, and 85 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Shannon Airport contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 243 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 93 feet. Within 10 miles also contains only modest variations in elevation (413 feet). Within 50 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (2,133 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Shannon Airport is covered by artificial surfaces (46%), trees (31%), and cropland (23%), within 10 miles by trees (66%) and artificial surfaces (20%), and within 50 miles by trees (64%) and cropland (19%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather at Shannon Airport, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

Shannon Airport has a weather station that reported reliably enough during the analysis period that we have included it in our network. When available, historical temperature and dew point measurements are taken directly from this weather station. These records are obtained from NOAA's Integrated Surface Hourly data set, falling back on ICAO METAR records as required.

In the case of missing or erroneous measurements from this station, we fall back on records from nearby stations, adjusted according to typical seasonal and diurnal intra-station differences. For a given day of the year and hour of the day, the fallback station is selected to minimize the prediction error over the years for which there are measurements for both stations.

The stations on which we may fall back include but are not limited to Flying T Farm Airport; Quantico Marine Corps Airfield / Turner Field; Warrenton-Fauquier Airport; Manassas Regional Airport; Culpeper County Airport; Mount Vernon Hospital Heliport; Hanover County Municipal Airport; and Louisa, Louisa County Airport/Freeman Field.

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.