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Average Weather at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport Canada

At Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport, the summers are warm; the winters are freezing, dry, and windy; and it is partly cloudy year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 14°F to 80°F and is rarely below -4°F or above 89°F.

Climate Summary

freezingvery coldcoldcoolwarmcoolcoldvery coldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec67%67%37%37%clearovercastprecipitation: 2.1 inprecipitation: 2.1 in0.8 in0.8 inmuggy: 21%muggy: 21%0%0%drydrytourism score: 7.0tourism score: 7.00.00.0
Click on each chart for more information.

Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport for warm-weather activities is from late June to early September.

Temperature

The warm season lasts for 3.6 months, from May 28 to September 17, with an average daily high temperature above 70°F. The hottest day of the year is July 20, with an average high of 80°F and low of 62°F.

The cold season lasts for 3.4 months, from December 2 to March 14, with an average daily high temperature below 38°F. The coldest day of the year is January 29, with an average low of 14°F and high of 28°F.

Average High and Low Temperature

Average High and Low Temperature at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportwarmcoldcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec-10°F0°F10°F20°F30°F40°F50°F60°F70°F80°F90°F100°FJan 2928°FJan 2928°FJul 2080°FJul 2080°F14°F14°F62°F62°FMay 2870°FMay 2870°FSep 1770°FSep 1770°FDec 238°FDec 238°FMar 1438°FMar 1438°F51°F51°F52°F52°F27°F27°F22°F22°FLowHigh
The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature

Average Hourly Temperature at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM4 AM8 AM12 PM4 PM8 PM12 AMfreezingvery coldcoldcoldcoolcomfortablewarmfreezingvery coldcomfortable
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < very cold < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Znomenka, Ukraine (4,841 miles away); Tatvan, Turkey (5,688 miles); and Lermontov, Russia (5,406 miles) are the far-away foreign places with temperatures most similar to Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport (view comparison).

Clouds

At Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport begins around May 31 and lasts for 4.9 months, ending around October 27. On August 20, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 67% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 33% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around October 27 and lasts for 7.1 months, ending around May 31. On January 10, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 63% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 37% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories

Cloud Cover Categories at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Aug 2067%Aug 2067%Jan 1037%Jan 1037%May 3152%May 3152%Oct 2753%Oct 2753%clearmostly clearpartly cloudymostly cloudyovercast
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds: clear < 20% < mostly clear < 40% < partly cloudy < 60% < mostly cloudy < 80% < overcast.

Precipitation

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 7.8 months, from March 31 to November 23, with a greater than 22% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 31% on October 7.

The drier season lasts 4.3 months, from November 23 to March 31. The smallest chance of a wet day is 13% on January 31.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport changes throughout the year.

Rain alone is the most common for 11 months, from February 24 to January 11. The highest chance of a day with rain alone is 30% on October 7.

Snow alone is the most common for 1.4 months, from January 11 to February 24. The highest chance of a day with snow alone is 7% on January 21.

Daily Chance of Precipitation

Daily Chance of Precipitation at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportsnowrainJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Oct 731%Oct 731%Jan 3113%Jan 3113%Jan 119%Jan 119%Mar 3122%Mar 3122%Nov 2322%Nov 2322%snowrainmixed
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport experiences some seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

The rainy period of the year lasts for 11 months, from February 17 to January 12, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around September 23, with an average total accumulation of 2.1 inches.

The rainless period of the year lasts for 1.2 months, from January 12 to February 17. The least rain falls around January 28, with an average total accumulation of 0.4 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall

Average Monthly Rainfall at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportrainJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0.0 in0.5 in1.0 in1.5 in2.0 in2.5 in3.0 in3.5 inSep 232.1 inSep 232.1 inJan 280.4 inJan 280.4 inJun 21.9 inJun 21.9 inAug 11.8 inAug 11.8 in
The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Snowfall

We report snowfall in liquid-equivalent terms. The actual depth of new snowfall is typically between 5 and 10 times the liquid-equivalent amount, assuming the ground is frozen. Colder, drier snow tends to be on the higher end of that range and warmer, wetter snow on the lower end.

As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport experiences some seasonal variation in monthly liquid-equivalent snowfall.

The snowy period of the year lasts for 5.0 months, from November 12 to April 13, with a sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent snowfall of at least 0.1 inches. The most snow falls during the 31 days centered around February 16, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.4 inches.

The snowless period of the year lasts for 7.0 months, from April 13 to November 12. The least snow falls around July 21, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportsnowsnowJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0.0 in0.5 in1.0 in1.5 in2.0 inFeb 160.4 inFeb 160.4 inJul 210.0 inJul 210.0 inJan 110.4 inJan 110.4 inNov 120.1 inNov 120.1 inApr 130.1 inApr 130.1 in
The average liquid-equivalent snowfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average rainfall.

Sun

The length of the day at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2017, the shortest day is December 21, with 8 hours, 54 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 15 hours, 28 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight

Hours of Daylight and Twilight at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 hr24 hr4 hr20 hr8 hr16 hr12 hr12 hr16 hr8 hr20 hr4 hr24 hr0 hr12 hr, 7 minMar 2012 hr, 7 minMar 2015 hr, 28 minJun 2115 hr, 28 minJun 2112 hr, 9 minSep 2212 hr, 9 minSep 228 hr, 54 minDec 218 hr, 54 minDec 21nightnightday
The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 5:34 AM on June 15, and the latest sunrise is 2 hours, 23 minutes later at 7:57 AM on November 4. The earliest sunset is at 4:39 PM on December 9, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 24 minutes later at 9:03 PM on June 26.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport during 2017, starting in the spring on March 12, lasting 7.8 months, and ending in the fall on November 5.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJun 155:34 AMJun 155:34 AM9:03 PMJun 269:03 PMJun 26Dec 94:39 PMDec 94:39 PM7:57 AMNov 47:57 AMNov 4Mar 12DSTMar 12DSTDSTNov 5DSTNov 5daynightnightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunset
The solar day over the course of the year 2017. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport experiences some seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.

The muggier period of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from June 5 to September 21, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 5% of the time. The muggiest day of the year is August 1, with muggy conditions 21% of the time.

The least muggy day of the year is November 28, when muggy conditions are essentially unheard of.

Humidity Comfort Levels

Humidity Comfort Levels at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportmuggyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Nov 280%Nov 280%Aug 121%Aug 121%Jun 55%Jun 55%Sep 215%Sep 215%muggymuggycomfortablecomfortabledrydryhumidhumidoppressiveoppressive
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point: dry < 55°F < comfortable < 60°F < humid < 65°F < muggy < 70°F < oppressive < 75°F < miserable.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 5.8 months, from October 26 to April 21, with average wind speeds of more than 11.0 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is January 12, with an average hourly wind speed of 13.7 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 6.2 months, from April 21 to October 26. The calmest day of the year is August 4, with an average hourly wind speed of 8.3 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed

Average Wind Speed at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportwindywindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph2 mph4 mph6 mph8 mph10 mph12 mph14 mph16 mph18 mph20 mph22 mphJan 1213.7 mphJan 1213.7 mphAug 48.3 mphAug 48.3 mphOct 2611.0 mphOct 2611.0 mphApr 2111.0 mphApr 2111.0 mph
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport is from the west throughout the year.

Wind Direction

Wind Direction at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%westsoutheastnorth
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions (north, east, south, and west), excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Water Temperature

Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 2.7 months, from July 4 to September 25, with an average temperature above 62°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 10, with an average temperature of 69°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 5.1 months, from December 10 to May 13, with an average temperature below 42°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is March 8, with an average temperature of 36°F.

Average Water Temperature

Average Water Temperature at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportwarmcoolcoolJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec30°F35°F40°F45°F50°F55°F60°F65°F70°F75°FAug 1069°FAug 1069°F36°FMar 836°FMar 8Jul 462°FJul 462°FSep 2562°FSep 2562°FDec 1042°FDec 1042°FMay 1342°FMay 1342°F
The daily average water temperature (purple line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Best Time of Year to Visit

To characterize how pleasant the weather is at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport for general outdoor tourist activities is from late June to early September, with a peak score in the second week of August.

Tourism Score

Tourism Score at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airportbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec02468107.07.00.00.0 precipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperaturetourism score
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport for hot-weather activities is from early July to mid August, with a peak score in the third week of July.

Beach/Pool Score

Beach/Pool Score at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airportbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec02468105.05.00.00.0 precipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperaturebeach/pool score
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Growing Season

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport typically lasts for 5.3 months (162 days), from around May 3 to around October 12, rarely starting before April 14 or after May 21, and rarely ending before September 25 or after October 30.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airportgrowing seasonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%May 350%May 350%Oct 1250%Oct 1250%May 2190%May 2190%Sep 2590%Sep 2590%Apr 1410%Apr 1410%Oct 3010%Oct 3010%0%Feb 70%Feb 7Jul 20100%Jul 20100%frigidfreezingvery coldcoolcomfortablewarmcoldhot
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < very cold < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport should appear around May 2, only rarely appearing before April 20 or after May 15.

Growing Degree Days

Growing Degree Days at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F500°F1,000°F1,500°F2,000°F2,500°FMay 290°FMay 290°FJul 6900°FJul 6900°FAug 201,800°FAug 201,800°FDec 312,470°FDec 312,470°F
The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.6 months, from May 2 to August 20, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 5.8 kWh. The brightest day of the year is June 30, with an average of 6.9 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from October 30 to February 13, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 2.4 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 24, with an average of 1.3 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal AirportbrightdarkdarkJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 kWh1 kWh2 kWh3 kWh4 kWh5 kWh6 kWh7 kWh8 kWh9 kWhJun 306.9 kWhJun 306.9 kWhDec 241.3 kWhDec 241.3 kWhMay 25.8 kWhMay 25.8 kWhAug 205.8 kWhAug 205.8 kWhOct 302.4 kWhOct 302.4 kWhFeb 132.4 kWhFeb 132.4 kWh
The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport are 43.862 deg latitude, -79.370 deg longitude, and 650 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 180 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 645 feet. Within 10 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (797 feet). Within 50 miles contains significant variations in elevation (1,512 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport is covered by artificial surfaces (52%), cropland (21%), bare soil (11%), and trees (11%), within 10 miles by artificial surfaces (38%) and cropland (25%), and within 50 miles by water (31%) and trees (25%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather at Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport has a weather station that reported reliably enough during the analysis period that we have included it in our network. When available, historical temperature and dew point measurements are taken directly from this weather station. These records are obtained from NOAA's Integrated Surface Hourly data set, falling back on ICAO METAR records as required.

In the case of missing or erroneous measurements from this station, we fall back on records from nearby stations, adjusted according to typical seasonal and diurnal intra-station differences. For a given day of the year and hour of the day, the fallback station is selected to minimize the prediction error over the years for which there are measurements for both stations.

The stations on which we may fall back include but are not limited to Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport; Toronto Pearson International Airport; Oshawa Airport; Crn On Egbert 1 W; Egbert Meteorological Aeronautical Presentation System; Port Weller, Ont.; Borden, Ont.; and Vineland Station Rcs.

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.