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Average Weather at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport Michigan, United States

At Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport, the summers are warm; the winters are freezing, dry, and windy; and it is partly cloudy year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 17°F to 83°F and is rarely below 0°F or above 91°F.

Climate Summary

freezingvery coldcoldcoolwarmcoolcoldvery coldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec67%67%34%34%clearovercastprecipitation: 3.0 inprecipitation: 3.0 in1.2 in1.2 inmuggy: 33%muggy: 33%0%0%drydrytourism score: 6.7tourism score: 6.70.00.0
Click on each chart for more information.

Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport for warm-weather activities is from mid June to early September.

Temperature

The warm season lasts for 3.7 months, from May 26 to September 17, with an average daily high temperature above 73°F. The hottest day of the year is July 19, with an average high of 83°F and low of 62°F.

The cold season lasts for 3.4 months, from November 30 to March 9, with an average daily high temperature below 41°F. The coldest day of the year is January 29, with an average low of 17°F and high of 31°F.

Average High and Low Temperature

Average High and Low Temperature at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportwarmcoldcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F10°F20°F30°F40°F50°F60°F70°F80°F90°F100°FJan 2931°FJan 2931°FJul 1983°FJul 1983°F17°F17°F62°F62°FMay 2673°FMay 2673°FSep 1773°FSep 1773°FNov 3041°FNov 3041°FMar 941°FMar 941°F51°F51°F53°F53°F29°F29°F25°F25°FLowHigh
The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature

Average Hourly Temperature at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM4 AM8 AM12 PM4 PM8 PM12 AMfreezingvery coldcoldcoldcoolwarmcomfortablecomfortablevery coldfreezing
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < very cold < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Aleksandrovskoye, Russia (5,581 miles away) is the far-away foreign place with temperatures most similar to Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport (view comparison).

Clouds

At Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport begins around May 29 and lasts for 5.1 months, ending around November 1. On August 10, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 67% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 33% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around November 1 and lasts for 6.9 months, ending around May 29. On January 8, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 66% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 34% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories

Cloud Cover Categories at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Aug 1067%Aug 1067%Jan 834%Jan 834%May 2951%May 2951%Nov 151%Nov 151%clearmostly clearmostly cloudyovercastpartly cloudy
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds: clear < 20% < mostly clear < 40% < partly cloudy < 60% < mostly cloudy < 80% < overcast.

Precipitation

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 6.5 months, from March 29 to October 13, with a greater than 25% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 35% on June 13.

The drier season lasts 5.5 months, from October 13 to March 29. The smallest chance of a wet day is 16% on February 2.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport changes throughout the year.

Rain alone is the most common for 11 months, from February 18 to January 15. The highest chance of a day with rain alone is 35% on June 13.

Snow alone is the most common for 1.1 months, from January 15 to February 18. The highest chance of a day with snow alone is 8% on January 7.

Daily Chance of Precipitation

Daily Chance of Precipitation at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportsnowrainJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Jun 1335%Jun 1335%Feb 216%Feb 216%Jan 122%Jan 122%Mar 2925%Mar 2925%Oct 1325%Oct 1325%snowrainmixed
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

Rain falls throughout the year at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around June 1, with an average total accumulation of 3.0 inches.

The least rain falls around January 28, with an average total accumulation of 0.7 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall

Average Monthly Rainfall at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in1 in2 in3 in4 in5 in6 inJun 13.0 inJun 13.0 inJan 280.7 inJan 280.7 inSep 102.9 inSep 102.9 inJul 112.7 inJul 112.7 in
The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Snowfall

We report snowfall in liquid-equivalent terms. The actual depth of new snowfall is typically between 5 and 10 times the liquid-equivalent amount, assuming the ground is frozen. Colder, drier snow tends to be on the higher end of that range and warmer, wetter snow on the lower end.

As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport experiences some seasonal variation in monthly liquid-equivalent snowfall.

The snowy period of the year lasts for 4.8 months, from November 15 to April 10, with a sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent snowfall of at least 0.1 inches. The most snow falls during the 31 days centered around January 6, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.5 inches.

The snowless period of the year lasts for 7.2 months, from April 10 to November 15. The least snow falls around July 20, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportsnowsnowJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0.0 in0.5 in1.0 in1.5 in2.0 in2.5 in3.0 inJan 60.5 inJan 60.5 inJul 200.0 inJul 200.0 inFeb 150.5 inFeb 150.5 inNov 150.1 inNov 150.1 inApr 100.1 inApr 100.1 in
The average liquid-equivalent snowfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average rainfall.

Sun

The length of the day at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2018, the shortest day is December 21, with 9 hours, 3 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 15 hours, 19 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight

Hours of Daylight and Twilight at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 hr24 hr4 hr20 hr8 hr16 hr12 hr12 hr16 hr8 hr20 hr4 hr24 hr0 hr12 hr, 9 minMar 2012 hr, 9 minMar 2015 hr, 19 minJun 2115 hr, 19 minJun 2112 hr, 10 minSep 2212 hr, 10 minSep 229 hr, 3 minDec 219 hr, 3 minDec 21nightnightday
The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 5:57 AM on June 15, and the latest sunrise is 2 hours, 15 minutes later at 8:12 AM on November 3. The earliest sunset is at 5:02 PM on December 7, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 15 minutes later at 9:17 PM on June 26.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport during 2018, starting in the spring on March 11, lasting 7.8 months, and ending in the fall on November 4.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJun 155:57 AMJun 155:57 AM9:17 PMJun 269:17 PMJun 26Dec 75:02 PMDec 75:02 PM8:12 AMNov 38:12 AMNov 3Mar 11DSTMar 11DSTDSTNov 4DSTNov 4daynightnightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunset
The solar day over the course of the year 2018. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport experiences significant seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.

The muggier period of the year lasts for 3.7 months, from May 31 to September 22, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 8% of the time. The muggiest day of the year is August 1, with muggy conditions 33% of the time.

The least muggy day of the year is February 24, when muggy conditions are essentially unheard of.

Humidity Comfort Levels

Humidity Comfort Levels at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportmuggyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Feb 240%Feb 240%Aug 133%Aug 133%May 318%May 318%Sep 228%Sep 228%muggymuggydrydrycomfortablecomfortablehumidhumidoppressiveoppressive
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point: dry < 55°F < comfortable < 60°F < humid < 65°F < muggy < 70°F < oppressive < 75°F < miserable.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 7.3 months, from October 5 to May 14, with average wind speeds of more than 10.4 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is January 15, with an average hourly wind speed of 12.8 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 4.7 months, from May 14 to October 5. The calmest day of the year is August 4, with an average hourly wind speed of 7.9 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed

Average Wind Speed at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportwindywindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph2 mph4 mph6 mph8 mph10 mph12 mph14 mph16 mph18 mph20 mphJan 1512.8 mphJan 1512.8 mphAug 47.9 mphAug 47.9 mphOct 510.4 mphOct 510.4 mphMay 1410.4 mphMay 1410.4 mph
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport varies throughout the year.

The wind is most often from the south for 3.0 days, from September 7 to September 10, with a peak percentage of 31% on September 7. The wind is most often from the west for 12 months, from September 10 to September 7, with a peak percentage of 45% on January 1.

Wind Direction

Wind Direction at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportWWJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%westsouthnortheast
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions (north, east, south, and west), excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Water Temperature

Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 3.0 months, from June 24 to September 25, with an average temperature above 66°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 3, with an average temperature of 74°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 4.3 months, from December 10 to April 19, with an average temperature below 42°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is February 19, with an average temperature of 34°F.

Average Water Temperature

Average Water Temperature at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportwarmcoolcoolJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec30°F40°F50°F60°F70°F80°FAug 374°FAug 374°F34°FFeb 1934°FFeb 19Jun 2466°FJun 2466°FSep 2566°FSep 2566°FDec 1042°FDec 1042°FApr 1942°FApr 1942°F
The daily average water temperature (purple line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Best Time of Year to Visit

To characterize how pleasant the weather is at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport for general outdoor tourist activities is from mid June to early September, with a peak score in the second week of August.

Tourism Score

Tourism Score at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airportbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec02468106.76.70.00.0 precipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperaturetourism score
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport for hot-weather activities is from late June to mid August, with a peak score in the third week of July.

Beach/Pool Score

Beach/Pool Score at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airportbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec02468105.25.20.00.0 precipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperaturebeach/pool score
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Growing Season

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport typically lasts for 5.6 months (169 days), from around April 29 to around October 15, rarely starting before April 11 or after May 18, and rarely ending before September 25 or after November 4.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airportgrowing seasonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Apr 2950%Apr 2950%Oct 1550%Oct 1550%May 1890%May 1890%Sep 2590%Sep 2590%Apr 1110%Apr 1110%Nov 410%Nov 410%0%Feb 120%Feb 12Jul 24100%Jul 24100%freezingvery coldcoolcomfortablewarmhotcold
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < very cold < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport should appear around April 18, only rarely appearing before April 5 or after May 1.

Growing Degree Days

Growing Degree Days at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F500°F1,000°F1,500°F2,000°F2,500°F3,000°FApr 1890°FApr 1890°FJun 25900°FJun 25900°FAug 61,800°FAug 61,800°FDec 312,885°FDec 312,885°F
The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from May 4 to August 21, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 5.9 kWh. The brightest day of the year is July 1, with an average of 7.0 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 3.4 months, from November 2 to February 13, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 2.5 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 20, with an average of 1.4 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy AirportbrightdarkdarkJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 kWh1 kWh2 kWh3 kWh4 kWh5 kWh6 kWh7 kWh8 kWh9 kWhJul 17.0 kWhJul 17.0 kWhDec 201.4 kWhDec 201.4 kWhMay 45.9 kWhMay 45.9 kWhAug 215.9 kWhAug 215.9 kWhNov 22.5 kWhNov 22.5 kWhFeb 132.5 kWhFeb 132.5 kWh
The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport are 42.626 deg latitude, -83.981 deg longitude, and 906 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 121 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 908 feet. Within 10 miles also contains only modest variations in elevation (240 feet). Within 50 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (696 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport is covered by cropland (47%), artificial surfaces (29%), and trees (24%), within 10 miles by cropland (62%) and trees (28%), and within 50 miles by cropland (59%) and artificial surfaces (21%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather at Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport has a weather station that reported reliably enough during the analysis period that we have included it in our network. When available, historical temperature and dew point measurements are taken directly from this weather station. These records are obtained from NOAA's Integrated Surface Hourly data set, falling back on ICAO METAR records as required.

In the case of missing or erroneous measurements from this station, we fall back on records from nearby stations, adjusted according to typical seasonal and diurnal intra-station differences. For a given day of the year and hour of the day, the fallback station is selected to minimize the prediction error over the years for which there are measurements for both stations.

The stations on which we may fall back include but are not limited to Owosso Community Airport; Bishop International Airport; Mason Jewett Field; Oakland County International Airport; Willow Run Airport; Jackson County Airport; Lansing, Capital City Airport; and Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport.

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.