Average Weather at Gustavus Airport Alaska, United States
At Gustavus Airport, the summers are cool and mostly cloudy; the winters are long, freezing, windy, and overcast; and it is wet year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 25°F to 64°F and is rarely below 6°F or above 71°F.
Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Gustavus Airport for warm-weather activities is from mid July to mid August.
The warm season lasts for 3.6 months, from May 24 to September 13, with an average daily high temperature above 58°F. The hottest day of the year is August 1, with an average high of 64°F and low of 51°F.
The cold season lasts for 4.0 months, from November 10 to March 11, with an average daily high temperature below 40°F. The coldest day of the year is December 31, with an average low of 25°F and high of 34°F.
Average High and Low Temperature
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature
At Gustavus Airport, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year at Gustavus Airport begins around April 11 and lasts for 5.0 months, ending around September 12. On August 6, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 36% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 64% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around September 12 and lasts for 7.0 months, ending around April 11. On January 26, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 79% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 21% of the time.
Cloud Cover Categories
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days at Gustavus Airport varies throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 5.5 months, from August 24 to February 10, with a greater than 56% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 71% on October 14.
The drier season lasts 6.4 months, from February 10 to August 24. The smallest chance of a wet day is 42% on June 22.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 70% on October 10.
Daily Chance of Precipitation
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Gustavus Airport experiences extreme seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
Rain falls throughout the year at Gustavus Airport. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around October 6, with an average total accumulation of 14.0 inches.
The least rain falls around June 11, with an average total accumulation of 4.3 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall
We report snowfall in liquid-equivalent terms. The actual depth of new snowfall is typically between 5 and 10 times the liquid-equivalent amount, assuming the ground is frozen. Colder, drier snow tends to be on the higher end of that range and warmer, wetter snow on the lower end.
As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Gustavus Airport experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly liquid-equivalent snowfall.
The snowy period of the year lasts for 5.8 months, from October 17 to April 10, with a sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent snowfall of at least 0.1 inches. The most snow falls during the 31 days centered around January 17, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 1.8 inches.
The snowless period of the year lasts for 6.2 months, from April 10 to October 17. The least snow falls around July 19, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.0 inches.
Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall
The length of the day at Gustavus Airport varies extremely over the course of the year. In 2018, the shortest day is December 21, with 6 hours, 20 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 18 hours, 19 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight
The earliest sunrise is at 3:54 AM on June 18, and the latest sunrise is 4 hours, 58 minutes later at 8:52 AM on December 27. The earliest sunset is at 3:09 PM on December 15, and the latest sunset is 7 hours, 5 minutes later at 10:14 PM on June 23.
Daylight saving time (DST) is observed at Gustavus Airport during 2018, starting in the spring on March 11, lasting 7.8 months, and ending in the fall on November 4.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
The perceived humidity level at Gustavus Airport, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, remaining a virtually constant 0% throughout.
Humidity Comfort Levels
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed at Gustavus Airport experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 6.2 months, from September 25 to March 31, with average wind speeds of more than 8.5 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is December 30, with an average hourly wind speed of 11.5 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 5.8 months, from March 31 to September 25. The calmest day of the year is July 7, with an average hourly wind speed of 5.5 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed
The predominant average hourly wind direction at Gustavus Airport varies throughout the year.
The wind is most often from the south for 4.3 months, from May 31 to October 8, with a peak percentage of 44% on July 17. The wind is most often from the east for 7.7 months, from October 8 to May 31, with a peak percentage of 52% on January 1.
Gustavus Airport is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.
The average water temperature experiences some seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The time of year with warmer water lasts for 2.5 months, from July 4 to September 19, with an average temperature above 52°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 12, with an average temperature of 55°F.
The time of year with cooler water lasts for 4.7 months, from December 14 to May 3, with an average temperature below 44°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is March 3, with an average temperature of 41°F.
Average Water Temperature
Best Time of Year to Visit
To characterize how pleasant the weather is at Gustavus Airport throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.
The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Gustavus Airport for general outdoor tourist activities is from mid July to mid August, with a peak score in the first week of August.
The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Gustavus Airport for hot-weather activities is from mid June to early July, with a peak score in the last week of June.
For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.
Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.
Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.
Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.
Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
The growing season at Gustavus Airport typically lasts for 4.7 months (142 days), from around May 13 to around October 2, rarely starting before April 23 or after May 30, and rarely ending before September 10 or after October 25.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms at Gustavus Airport should appear around June 8, only rarely appearing before May 24 or after June 24.
Growing Degree Days
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.1 months, from May 3 to August 6, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 4.2 kWh. The brightest day of the year is June 21, with an average of 5.2 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 4.3 months, from October 12 to February 20, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 1.2 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 19, with an average of 0.2 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Gustavus Airport are 58.423 deg latitude, -135.709 deg longitude, and 20 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Gustavus Airport is essentially flat, with a maximum elevation change of 69 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 17 feet. Within 10 miles is essentially flat (3,517 feet). Within 50 miles also contains extreme variations in elevation (9,833 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Gustavus Airport is covered by herbaceous vegetation (37%), trees (25%), sparse vegetation (22%), and shrubs (13%), within 10 miles by water (43%) and trees (38%), and within 50 miles by water (33%) and trees (29%).
This report illustrates the typical weather at Gustavus Airport, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
Gustavus Airport has a weather station that reported reliably enough during the analysis period that we have included it in our network. When available, historical temperature and dew point measurements are taken directly from this weather station. These records are obtained from NOAA's Integrated Surface Hourly data set, falling back on ICAO METAR records as required.
In the case of missing or erroneous measurements from this station, we fall back on records from nearby stations, adjusted according to typical seasonal and diurnal intra-station differences. For a given day of the year and hour of the day, the fallback station is selected to minimize the prediction error over the years for which there are measurements for both stations.
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.