1. WeatherSpark.com
  2. Mongolia
  3. Ulaanbaatar
  4. Ulan Bator

Average Weather in Ulan Bator Mongolia

In Ulan Bator, the summers are long and comfortable, the winters are frigid and dry, and it is partly cloudy year round. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from -19°F to 75°F and is rarely below -31°F or above 87°F.

The warm season lasts for 4.1 months, from May 14 to September 16, with an average daily high temperature above 61°F. The hottest day of the year is July 15, with an average high of 75°F and low of 54°F.

The cold season lasts for 3.0 months, from November 22 to February 22, with an average daily high temperature below 17°F. The coldest day of the year is January 18, with an average low of -19°F and high of 2°F.

Average High and Low Temperature

The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature

Average Hourly Temperature in Ulan Bator12 AM4 AM8 AM12 PM4 PM8 PM12 AMJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecfrigidfreezingchillycoldcoolcomfortable
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < chilly < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Clouds

In Ulan Bator, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year in Ulan Bator begins around August 19 and lasts for 3.3 months, ending around November 28. On October 3, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 62% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 38% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around November 28 and lasts for 8.7 months, ending around August 19. On June 24, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 49% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 51% of the time.

Cloud Cover

Cloud Cover in Ulan Batorclearercloudiercloudier0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecJun 2449%Jun 2449%Oct 338%Oct 338%Aug 1944%Aug 1944%Nov 2844%Nov 2844%overcastmostly cloudypartly cloudymostly clearclear
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds: clear < 20% < mostly clear < 40% < partly cloudy < 60% < mostly cloudy < 80% < overcast.

Precipitation

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Ulan Bator varies significantly throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 3.3 months, from June 1 to September 9, with a greater than 17% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 33% on July 21.

The drier season lasts 8.7 months, from September 9 to June 1. The smallest chance of a wet day is 0% on January 29.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation in Ulan Bator changes throughout the year.

Rain alone is the most common for 6.7 months, from April 3 to October 24. The highest chance of a day with rain alone is 33% on July 21.

Snow alone is the most common for 5.3 months, from October 24 to April 3. The highest chance of a day with snow alone is 2% on November 4.

Daily Chance of Precipitation

Daily Chance of Precipitation in Ulan Batorsnowrainsnow0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecJul 2133%Jul 2133%Jan 290%Jan 290%Apr 32%Apr 32%Oct 244%Oct 244%Jan 11%Jan 11%Jun 117%Jun 117%Sep 917%Sep 917%mixedrain
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Ulan Bator experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

The rainy period of the year lasts for 4.5 months, from May 10 to September 24, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around July 30, with an average total accumulation of 2.1 inches.

The rainless period of the year lasts for 7.5 months, from September 24 to May 10. The least rain falls around December 16, with an average total accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall

Average Monthly Rainfall in Ulan Batorrain0.0 in0.5 in1.0 in1.5 in2.0 in2.5 in3.0 in3.5 inJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecJul 302.1 inJul 302.1 inDec 16-0.0 inDec 16-0.0 inMay 100.5 inMay 100.5 inSep 240.5 inSep 240.5 in
The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Sun

The length of the day in Ulan Bator varies extremely over the course of the year. In 2017, the shortest day is December 21, with 8 hours, 23 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 16 hours, 2 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight

The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 5:52 AM on June 16, and the latest sunrise is 2 hours, 49 minutes later at 8:42 AM on January 1. The earliest sunset is at 4:59 PM on December 11, and the latest sunset is 4 hours, 56 minutes later at 9:55 PM on June 25.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Ulan Bator during 2017, starting in the spring on March 25, lasting 6.1 months, and ending in the fall on September 29.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in Ulan Bator2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecJun 165:52 AMJun 165:52 AM9:55 PMJun 259:55 PMJun 25Dec 114:59 PMDec 114:59 PM8:42 AMJan 18:42 AMJan 1Mar 25DSTMar 25DSTDSTSep 29DSTSep 29daynightnightnightnight
The solar day over the course of the year 2017. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

The perceived humidity level in Ulan Bator, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, remaining a virtually constant 0% throughout.

Humidity Comfort Levels

Humidity Comfort Levels in Ulan Bator0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecJan 240%Jan 240%Aug 20%Aug 20%drydryhumidhumid
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point: dry < 55°F < comfortable < 60°F < humid < 65°F < muggy < 70°F < oppressive < 75°F < miserable.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed in Ulan Bator experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 3.1 months, from March 10 to June 12, with average wind speeds of more than 5.3 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is May 4, with an average hourly wind speed of 6.4 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 8.9 months, from June 12 to March 10. The calmest day of the year is January 8, with an average hourly wind speed of 4.3 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed

Average Wind Speed in Ulan Batorwindy0 mph1 mph2 mph3 mph4 mph5 mph6 mph7 mph8 mph9 mph10 mph11 mphJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecMay 46.4 mphMay 46.4 mphJan 84.3 mphJan 84.3 mphMar 105.3 mphMar 105.3 mphJun 125.3 mphJun 125.3 mph
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction in Ulan Bator varies throughout the year.

The wind is most often from the west for 2.0 months, from October 26 to December 26, with a peak percentage of 40% on November 30. The wind is most often from the north for 10 months, from December 26 to October 26, with a peak percentage of 36% on January 1.

Wind Direction

Wind Direction in Ulan BatorNW0%20%40%60%80%100%JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecwestsoutheastnorth
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions (north, east, south, and west), excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.6 months, from April 22 to August 10, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 6.0 kWh. The brightest day of the year is June 5, with an average of 7.1 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 3.2 months, from November 1 to February 8, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 2.6 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 22, with an average of 1.4 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in Ulan Batorbrightdarkdark0 kWh1 kWh2 kWh3 kWh4 kWh5 kWh6 kWh7 kWh8 kWh9 kWhJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecJun 57.1 kWhJun 57.1 kWhDec 221.4 kWhDec 221.4 kWhApr 226.0 kWhApr 226.0 kWhAug 106.0 kWhAug 106.0 kWhNov 12.6 kWhNov 12.6 kWhFeb 82.6 kWhFeb 82.6 kWh
The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Ulan Bator are 47.908 deg latitude, 106.883 deg longitude, and 4,275 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Ulan Bator contains significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 636 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 4,268 feet. Within 10 miles contains significant variations in elevation (3,340 feet). Within 50 miles also contains extreme variations in elevation (5,912 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Ulan Bator is covered by artificial surfaces (84%), within 10 miles by sparse vegetation (30%) and artificial surfaces (18%), and within 50 miles by sparse vegetation (54%) and grassland (23%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather in Ulan Bator, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

There is only a single weather station, Ulan-Bator Chinggis Khan International Airport, in our network suitable to be used as a proxy for the historical temperature and dew point records of Ulan Bator.

At a distance of 11 kilometers from Ulan Bator, closer than our threshold of 150 kilometers, this station is deemed sufficiently nearby to be relied upon as our primary source for temperature and dew point records.

The station records are corrected for the elevation difference between the station and Ulan Bator according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.

Please note that the station records themselves may additionally have been back-filled using other nearby stations or the MERRA-2 reanalysis.

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.