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Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Khalkhāl Iran

In Khalkhāl, the summers are comfortable, dry, and clear and the winters are freezing, snowy, and partly cloudy. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 15°F to 76°F and is rarely below 3°F or above 83°F.

Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Khalkhāl for warm-weather activities is from late June to late August.

Climate in Khalkhāl

freezingvery coldcoldcoolcomfortablewarmcoolcoldvery coldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecNowNow99%99%50%50%clearovercastprecipitation: 2.6 inprecipitation: 2.6 in0.3 in0.3 inmuggy: 0%muggy: 0%0%0%drydrytourism score: 8.7tourism score: 8.70.00.0
Khalkhāl weather by month. Click on each chart for more information.

Average Temperature in Khalkhāl

The warm season lasts for 3.7 months, from May 31 to September 20, with an average daily high temperature above 67°F. The hottest day of the year is July 30, with an average high of 76°F and low of 54°F.

The cold season lasts for 3.5 months, from November 28 to March 10, with an average daily high temperature below 39°F. The coldest day of the year is January 23, with an average low of 15°F and high of 30°F.

Average High and Low Temperature in Khalkhāl

Average High and Low Temperature in KhalkhālwarmcoldcoldJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F10°F10°F20°F20°F30°F30°F40°F40°F50°F50°F60°F60°F70°F70°F80°F80°F90°F90°F100°F100°FJan 2330°FJan 2330°FJul 3076°FJul 3076°F15°F15°F54°F54°FMay 3167°FMay 3167°FSep 2067°FSep 2067°FNov 2839°FNov 2839°FMar 1039°FMar 1039°F45°F45°F44°F44°F24°F24°F22°F22°FNowNow
The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature in Khalkhāl

Average Hourly Temperature in KhalkhālJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM12 AM4 AM4 AM8 AM8 AM12 PM12 PM4 PM4 PM8 PM8 PM12 AM12 AMNowNowfreezingfreezingvery coldvery coldcoldcoldcoolcomfortablewarm
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Magrath, Canada (6,323 miles away); Upper Bear Creek, Colorado, United States (6,857 miles); and Hinsdale, Massachusetts, United States (5,808 miles) are the far-away foreign places with temperatures most similar to Khalkhāl (view comparison).

Compare Khalkhāl to another city:

Clouds

In Khalkhāl, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year in Khalkhāl begins around May 24 and lasts for 4.2 months, ending around September 30. On August 7, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 99% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 1% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around September 30 and lasts for 7.8 months, ending around May 24. On November 6, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 50% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 50% of the time.

Cloud Cover Categories in Khalkhāl

Cloud Cover Categories in KhalkhālclearercloudiercloudierJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Aug 799%Aug 799%Nov 650%Nov 650%May 2474%May 2474%Sep 3075%Sep 3075%NowNowclearmostly clearpartly cloudymostly cloudyovercast
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds.

Precipitation

A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Khalkhāl varies throughout the year.

The wetter season lasts 6.5 months, from September 15 to March 29, with a greater than 16% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 28% on November 10.

The drier season lasts 5.5 months, from March 29 to September 15. The smallest chance of a wet day is 5% on July 10.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation in Khalkhāl changes throughout the year.

Rain alone is the most common for 8.0 months, from March 23 to November 21. The highest chance of a day with rain alone is 22% on October 13.

Snow alone is the most common for 4.0 months, from November 21 to March 23. The highest chance of a day with snow alone is 17% on January 21.

Daily Chance of Precipitation in Khalkhāl

Daily Chance of Precipitation in KhalkhālsnowrainsnowJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Nov 1028%Nov 1028%Jul 105%Jul 105%Mar 2317%Mar 2317%Jan 115%Jan 115%Sep 1516%Sep 1516%NowNowsnowrain
The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Khalkhāl experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.

The rainy period of the year lasts for 8.2 months, from March 30 to December 4, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around October 15, with an average total accumulation of 2.3 inches.

The rainless period of the year lasts for 3.8 months, from December 4 to March 30. The least rain falls around January 13, with an average total accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Monthly Rainfall in Khalkhāl

Average Monthly Rainfall in KhalkhālrainJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 in0 in1 in1 in2 in2 in3 in3 in4 in4 in5 in5 in6 in6 inOct 152.3 inOct 152.3 inJan 130.0 inJan 130.0 inApr 240.8 inApr 240.8 inJun 290.3 inJun 290.3 inDec 40.5 inDec 40.5 inNowNow
The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Snowfall

We report snowfall in liquid-equivalent terms. The actual depth of new snowfall is typically between 5 and 10 times the liquid-equivalent amount, assuming the ground is frozen. Colder, drier snow tends to be on the higher end of that range and warmer, wetter snow on the lower end.

As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Khalkhāl experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly liquid-equivalent snowfall.

The snowy period of the year lasts for 6.7 months, from October 4 to April 26, with a sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent snowfall of at least 0.1 inches. The most snow falls during the 31 days centered around December 1, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 1.3 inches.

The snowless period of the year lasts for 5.3 months, from April 26 to October 4. The least snow falls around July 19, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.0 inches.

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall in Khalkhāl

Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall in KhalkhālsnowsnowJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0.0 in0.0 in0.5 in0.5 in1.0 in1.0 in1.5 in1.5 in2.0 in2.0 in2.5 in2.5 in3.0 in3.0 in3.5 in3.5 inDec 11.3 inDec 11.3 inJul 190.0 inJul 190.0 inFeb 111.2 inFeb 111.2 inOct 40.1 inOct 40.1 inApr 260.1 inApr 260.1 in
The average liquid-equivalent snowfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average rainfall.

Sun

The length of the day in Khalkhāl varies significantly over the course of the year. In 2021, the shortest day is December 21, with 9 hours, 34 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 14 hours, 46 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight in Khalkhāl

Hours of Daylight and Twilight in KhalkhālJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 hr24 hr4 hr20 hr8 hr16 hr12 hr12 hr16 hr8 hr20 hr4 hr24 hr0 hr12 hr, 8 minMar 2012 hr, 8 minMar 2014 hr, 46 minJun 2114 hr, 46 minJun 2112 hr, 9 minSep 2212 hr, 9 minSep 229 hr, 34 minDec 219 hr, 34 minDec 21nightnightdayNowNow
The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 5:53 AM on June 13, and the latest sunrise is 1 hour, 37 minutes later at 7:31 AM on January 5. The earliest sunset is at 4:57 PM on December 6, and the latest sunset is 3 hours, 44 minutes later at 8:41 PM on June 28.

Daylight saving time (DST) is observed in Khalkhāl during 2021, starting in the spring on March 22, lasting 6.0 months, and ending in the fall on September 21.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in Khalkhāl

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in KhalkhālJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec12 AM2 AM4 AM6 AM8 AM10 AM12 PM2 PM4 PM6 PM8 PM10 PM12 AMJun 135:53 AMJun 135:53 AM8:41 PMJun 288:41 PMJun 28Dec 64:57 PMDec 64:57 PM7:31 AMJan 57:31 AMJan 5Mar 22DSTMar 22DSTDSTSep 21DSTSep 21daynightnightnightSolarMidnightSolarMidnightSolarNoonSunriseSunsetNowNow
The solar day over the course of the year 2021. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray. The transitions to and from daylight saving time are indicated by the 'DST' labels.

Moon

The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2021. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.

Moon Rise, Set & Phases in Khalkhāl

The time in which the moon is above the horizon (light blue area), with new moons (dark gray lines) and full moons (blue lines) indicated. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

The perceived humidity level in Khalkhāl, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, remaining a virtually constant 0% throughout.

Humidity Comfort Levels in Khalkhāl

Humidity Comfort Levels in KhalkhālJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%0%10%10%20%20%30%30%40%40%50%50%60%60%70%70%80%80%90%90%100%100%Jan 300%Jan 300%Jul 270%Jul 270%NowNowdrydry
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed in Khalkhāl experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 4.7 months, from November 23 to April 14, with average wind speeds of more than 6.4 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is February 7, with an average hourly wind speed of 7.5 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 7.3 months, from April 14 to November 23. The calmest day of the year is May 26, with an average hourly wind speed of 5.4 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed in Khalkhāl

Average Wind Speed in KhalkhālwindywindyJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 mph0 mph2 mph2 mph4 mph4 mph6 mph6 mph8 mph8 mph10 mph10 mph12 mph12 mph14 mph14 mphFeb 77.5 mphFeb 77.5 mphMay 265.4 mphMay 265.4 mphNov 236.4 mphNov 236.4 mphApr 146.4 mphApr 146.4 mphNowNow
The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction in Khalkhāl varies throughout the year.

The wind is most often from the east for 6.0 months, from May 4 to November 3, with a peak percentage of 85% on July 26. The wind is most often from the west for 6.0 months, from November 3 to May 4, with a peak percentage of 57% on January 1.

Wind Direction in Khalkhāl

Wind Direction in KhalkhālWEWJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%20%80%40%60%60%40%80%20%100%0%NowNowwesteastsouthnorth
northeastsouthwest
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions, excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1.0 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Water Temperature

Khalkhāl is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 3.5 months, from June 16 to October 1, with an average temperature above 75°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 7, with an average temperature of 82°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 3.7 months, from December 25 to April 16, with an average temperature below 56°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is February 28, with an average temperature of 49°F.

Average Water Temperature in Khalkhāl

Average Water Temperature in KhalkhālwarmcoolJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec40°F40°F50°F50°F60°F60°F70°F70°F80°F80°F90°F90°FAug 782°FAug 782°F49°FFeb 2849°FFeb 28Jun 1675°FJun 1675°FOct 175°FOct 175°FDec 2556°FDec 2556°FApr 1656°FApr 1656°FNowNow
The daily average water temperature (purple line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Best Time of Year to Visit

To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Khalkhāl throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.

The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Khalkhāl for general outdoor tourist activities is from late June to late August, with a peak score in the third week of July.

Tourism Score in Khalkhāl

Tourism Score in Khalkhālbest timeJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810108.78.70.00.0NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudsclouds tourism score
The tourism score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Khalkhāl for hot-weather activities is from early July to mid August, with a peak score in the last week of July.

Beach/Pool Score in Khalkhāl

Beach/Pool Score in KhalkhālJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec002244668810104.74.70.00.0NowNowprecipitationprecipitationcloudscloudstemperaturetemperature beach/pool score
The beach/pool score (filled area), and its constituents: the temperature score (red line), the cloud cover score (blue line), and the precipitation score (green line).

Methodology

For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.

Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.

Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.

Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.

Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.

Growing Season

Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).

The growing season in Khalkhāl typically lasts for 5.6 months (171 days), from around April 29 to around October 17, rarely starting before April 10 or after May 18, and rarely ending before September 28 or after November 7.

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Khalkhāl

Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Khalkhālgrowing seasonJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0%100%10%90%20%80%30%70%40%60%50%50%60%40%70%30%80%20%90%10%100%0%Apr 2950%Apr 2950%Oct 1750%Oct 1750%May 1890%May 1890%Sep 2890%Sep 2890%Apr 1010%Apr 1010%Nov 710%Nov 710%Jul 27100%Jul 27100%NowNowfrigidfreezingvery coldcoldcoolcomfortablewarm
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The percentage of time spent in various temperature bands. The black line is the percentage chance that a given day is within the growing season.

Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.

Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in Khalkhāl should appear around May 13, only rarely appearing before April 30 or after May 28.

Growing Degree Days in Khalkhāl

Growing Degree Days in KhalkhālJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0°F0°F200°F200°F400°F400°F600°F600°F800°F800°F1,000°F1,000°F1,200°F1,200°F1,400°F1,400°F1,600°F1,600°F1,800°F1,800°FMay 1390°FMay 1390°FJul 26900°FJul 26900°FDec 311,728°FDec 311,728°FNowNow
The average growing degree days accumulated over the course of the year, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.1 months, from May 16 to August 21, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 7.0 kWh. The brightest day of the year is June 20, with an average of 8.1 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 3.6 months, from October 25 to February 13, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 3.6 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 15, with an average of 2.5 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in Khalkhāl

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in KhalkhālbrightdarkdarkJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec0 kWh0 kWh1 kWh1 kWh2 kWh2 kWh3 kWh3 kWh4 kWh4 kWh5 kWh5 kWh6 kWh6 kWh7 kWh7 kWh8 kWh8 kWh9 kWh9 kWh10 kWh10 kWhJun 208.1 kWhJun 208.1 kWhDec 152.5 kWhDec 152.5 kWhAug 217.0 kWhAug 217.0 kWhOct 253.6 kWhOct 253.6 kWhFeb 133.6 kWhFeb 133.6 kWhNowNow
The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Khalkhāl are 37.619 deg latitude, 48.526 deg longitude, and 5,873 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Khalkhāl contains very significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 909 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 6,099 feet. Within 10 miles contains very significant variations in elevation (6,798 feet). Within 50 miles also contains extreme variations in elevation (11,024 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Khalkhāl is covered by shrubs (65%) and grassland (24%), within 10 miles by shrubs (74%) and trees (12%), and within 50 miles by shrubs (48%) and trees (19%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather in Khalkhāl, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

There are 3 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Khalkhāl.

For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Khalkhāl according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.

The estimated value at Khalkhāl is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Khalkhāl and a given station.

The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Zanjan Airport (OITZ, 62%, 95 kilometers, south); Rasht Airport (OIGG, 20%, 101 kilometers, east); and Lankaran International Airport (UBBL, 18%, 127 kilometers, north).

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.