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Average Weather in Mecca Saudi Arabia

In Mecca, the temperature typically varies from 61°F to 107°F over the course of the year, and is rarely below 54°F or above 112°F.

The hot season lasts for 4.7 months, from May 12 to October 3, with an average daily high temperature above 102°F. The hottest day of the year is June 19, with an average high of 107°F and low of 81°F.

The cool season lasts for 2.9 months, from December 1 to February 26, with an average daily high temperature below 88°F. The coldest day of the year is January 22, with an average low of 61°F and high of 84°F.

Average High and Low Temperature

The daily average high (red line) and low (blue line) temperature with percentile bands, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted lines are the corresponding average perceived temperatures.

The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.

Average Hourly Temperature

12 AM4 AM8 AM12 PM4 PM8 PM12 AMJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDeccoolcoolcomfortablecomfortablewarmwarmhothotswelteringsweltering
The average hourly temperature, color coded into bands: frigid < 15°F < freezing < 32°F < chilly < 45°F < cold < 55°F < cool < 65°F < comfortable < 75°F < warm < 85°F < hot < 95°F < sweltering. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Sun

The length of the day in Mecca varies over the course of the year. In 2017, the shortest day is December 21, with 10 hours, 50 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 13 hours, 26 minutes of daylight.

Hours of Daylight and Twilight

The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

The earliest sunrise is at 5:37 AM on June 7, and the latest sunrise is 1 hour, 23 minutes later at 7:01 AM on January 16. The earliest sunset is at 5:37 PM on November 27, and the latest sunset is 1 hour, 30 minutes later at 7:07 PM on July 5.

Daylight saving time (DST) is not observed in Mecca during 2017.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight

The solar day over the course of the year 2017. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray.

Clouds

In Mecca, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The clearer part of the year in Mecca begins around October 18 and lasts for 8.4 months, ending around June 29. On November 13, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 85% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 15% of the time.

The cloudier part of the year begins around June 29 and lasts for 3.6 months, ending around October 18. On September 28, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 45% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 55% of the time.

Cloud Cover

clearerclearerclearerclearercloudiercloudier0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecSep 2845%Sep 2845%Nov 1315%Nov 1315%Oct 1830%Oct 1830%Jun 2930%Jun 2930%overcastovercastmostly clearmostly clearclearclear
The percentage of time spent in each cloud cover band, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds: clear < 20% < mostly clear < 40% < partly cloudy < 60% < mostly cloudy < 80% < overcast.

Precipitation

Mecca does not experience significant seasonal variation in the frequency of wet days (i.e., those with greater than 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation). The frequency ranges from 0% to 3%, with an average value of 2%.

Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation throughout the year is rain alone, with a peak probability of 3% on May 6.

Daily Chance of Precipitation

The percentage of days in which various types of precipitation are observed, excluding trace quantities: rain alone, snow alone, and mixed (both rain and snow fell in the same day).

Rainfall

The sliding 31-day quantity of rainfall in Mecca does not vary significantly over the course of the year, staying within 0.1 inches of 0.1 inches throughout.

Average Monthly Rainfall

The average rainfall (solid line) accumulated over the course of a sliding 31-day period centered on the day in question, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands. The thin dotted line is the corresponding average liquid-equivalent snowfall.

Humidity

We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.

Mecca experiences some seasonal variation in the perceived humidity.

The muggier period of the year lasts for 4.6 months, from July 17 to December 6, during which time the comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable at least 9% of the time. The muggiest day of the year is August 30, with muggy conditions 29% of the time.

The least muggy day of the year is February 18, with muggy conditions 2% of the time.

Humidity Comfort Levels

muggymuggy0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecFeb 182%Feb 182%Aug 3029%Aug 3029%Jul 179%Jul 179%Dec 69%Dec 69%miserablemiserablemuggymuggycomfortablecomfortabledrydry
The percentage of time spent at various humidity comfort levels, categorized by dew point: dry < 55°F < comfortable < 60°F < humid < 65°F < muggy < 70°F < oppressive < 75°F < miserable.

Wind

This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.

The average hourly wind speed in Mecca experiences mildly seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The windier part of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from May 18 to September 2, with average wind speeds of more than 4.6 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is July 12, with an average hourly wind speed of 5.2 miles per hour.

The calmer time of year lasts for 8.5 months, from September 2 to May 18. The calmest day of the year is October 6, with an average hourly wind speed of 4.1 miles per hour.

Average Wind Speed

The average of mean hourly wind speeds (dark gray line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

The predominant average hourly wind direction in Mecca varies throughout the year.

The wind is most often from the west for 4.3 months, from January 15 to May 25; for 1.9 weeks, from September 13 to September 26; and for 1.0 weeks, from December 4 to December 11, with a peak percentage of 40% on August 2. The wind is most often from the north for 3.6 months, from May 25 to September 13, with a peak percentage of 49% on July 12. The wind is most often from the east for 2.3 months, from September 26 to December 4 and for 1.1 months, from December 11 to January 15, with a peak percentage of 39% on October 12.

Wind Direction

EEWWNNWWEEEE0%20%40%60%80%100%JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecwestwestsouthsoutheasteastnorthnorth
The percentage of hours in which the mean wind direction is from each of the four cardinal wind directions (north, east, south, and west), excluding hours in which the mean wind speed is less than 1 mph. The lightly tinted areas at the boundaries are the percentage of hours spent in the implied intermediate directions (northeast, southeast, southwest, and northwest).

Water Temperature

Mecca is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.

The average water temperature experiences some seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The time of year with warmer water lasts for 4.2 months, from July 6 to November 11, with an average temperature above 86°F. The day of the year with the warmest water is August 15, with an average temperature of 88°F.

The time of year with cooler water lasts for 3.0 months, from January 10 to April 10, with an average temperature below 80°F. The day of the year with the coolest water is February 19, with an average temperature of 78°F.

Average Water Temperature

The daily average water temperature (purple line) with percentile bands, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Solar Energy

This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.

The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.

The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.9 months, from April 19 to August 16, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 7.3 kWh. The brightest day of the year is June 24, with an average of 8.0 kWh.

The darker period of the year lasts for 2.8 months, from November 5 to January 29, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 5.4 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 16, with an average of 4.7 kWh.

Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy

The average daily shortwave solar energy reaching the ground per square meter (orange line), with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Topography

For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Mecca are 21.427 deg latitude, 39.826 deg longitude, and 1,050 ft elevation.

The topography within 2 miles of Mecca contains very significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 1,106 feet, and an average elevation above sea level of 1,110 feet. Within 10 miles contains large variations in elevation (2,690 feet). Within 50 miles contains extreme variations in elevation (8,609 feet).

The area within 2 miles of Mecca is covered by artificial surfaces (100%), within 10 miles by bare soil (84%) and artificial surfaces (15%), and within 50 miles by bare soil (84%).

Data Sources

This report illustrates the typical weather in Mecca, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.

Temperature and Dew Point

There are 2 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Mecca.

For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Mecca according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.

The estimated value at Mecca is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Mecca and a given station.

The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Taif Regional Airport (31%, 74 kilometers, east) and Jeddah King Abdul Aziz International Airport (69%, 75 kilometers, west).

Other Data

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.

All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.

Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .