Climate and Average Weather Year Round in Moscow Russia
In Moscow, the summers are comfortable and partly cloudy and the winters are long, freezing, snowy, windy, and overcast. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 12°F to 76°F and is rarely below -7°F or above 86°F.
Based on the tourism score, the best time of year to visit Moscow for warm-weather activities is from late June to mid August.
Climate in Moscow
The warm season lasts for 3.5 months, from May 18 to September 2, with an average daily high temperature above 65°F. The hottest month of the year in Moscow is July, with an average high of 75°F and low of 57°F.
The cold season lasts for 3.9 months, from November 15 to March 12, with an average daily high temperature below 34°F. The coldest month of the year in Moscow is January, with an average low of 14°F and high of 24°F.
Average High and Low Temperature in Moscow
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature in Moscow
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
Hancock, Michigan, United States (4,682 miles away); Shelburne, Canada (4,653 miles); and Washington, Vermont, United States (4,434 miles) are the far-away foreign places with temperatures most similar to Moscow (view comparison).
In Moscow, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in Moscow begins around April 18 and lasts for 5.1 months, ending around September 21.
The clearest month of the year in Moscow is July, during which on average the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 58% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around September 21 and lasts for 6.9 months, ending around April 18.
The cloudiest month of the year in Moscow is December, during which on average the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 76% of the time.
Cloud Cover Categories in Moscow
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Moscow varies throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 5.9 months, from May 15 to November 12, with a greater than 25% chance of a given day being a wet day. The month with the most wet days in Moscow is June, with an average of 9.9 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
The drier season lasts 6.1 months, from November 12 to May 15. The month with the fewest wet days in Moscow is March, with an average of 5.3 days with at least 0.04 inches of precipitation.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation in Moscow changes throughout the year.
Rain alone is the most common for 8.5 months, from March 10 to November 24. The month with the most days of rain alone in Moscow is June, with an average of 9.9 days.
Snow alone is the most common for 3.5 months, from November 24 to March 10. The month with the most days of snow alone in Moscow is January, with an average of 4.4 days.
Daily Chance of Precipitation in Moscow
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Moscow experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
The rainy period of the year lasts for 8.6 months, from March 20 to December 8, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. The month with the most rain in Moscow is June, with an average rainfall of 2.4 inches.
The rainless period of the year lasts for 3.4 months, from December 8 to March 20. The month with the least rain in Moscow is January, with an average rainfall of 0.3 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall in Moscow
As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Moscow experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly snowfall.
The snowy period of the year lasts for 6.0 months, from October 15 to April 14, with a sliding 31-day snowfall of at least 1.0 inches. The month with the most snow in Moscow is December, with an average snowfall of 7.6 inches.
The snowless period of the year lasts for 6.0 months, from April 14 to October 15. The least snow falls around July 15, with an average total accumulation of 0.0 inches.
Average Monthly Snowfall in Moscow
The length of the day in Moscow varies extremely over the course of the year. In 2022, the shortest day is December 22, with 7 hours, 0 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 17 hours, 34 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight in Moscow
The earliest sunrise is at 3:44 AM on June 18, and the latest sunrise is 5 hours, 15 minutes later at 8:59 AM on December 29. The earliest sunset is at 3:56 PM on December 14, and the latest sunset is 5 hours, 22 minutes later at 9:18 PM on June 24.
Daylight saving time (DST) is not observed in Moscow during 2022.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight in Moscow
The figure below presents a compact representation of key lunar data for 2022. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the colored areas indicate when the moon is above the horizon. The vertical gray bars (new Moons) and blue bars (full Moons) indicate key Moon phases.
Moon Rise, Set & Phases in Moscow
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
The perceived humidity level in Moscow, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, staying within 2% of 2% throughout.
Humidity Comfort Levels in Moscow
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Moscow experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 6.2 months, from October 3 to April 11, with average wind speeds of more than 10.0 miles per hour. The windiest month of the year in Moscow is January, with an average hourly wind speed of 11.9 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 5.8 months, from April 11 to October 3. The calmest month of the year in Moscow is July, with an average hourly wind speed of 8.0 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed in Moscow
The predominant average hourly wind direction in Moscow varies throughout the year.
The wind is most often from the south for 2.3 months, from February 9 to April 19, with a peak percentage of 35% on February 17. The wind is most often from the west for 2.9 months, from April 19 to July 17 and for 6.5 months, from July 24 to February 9, with a peak percentage of 33% on June 5. The wind is most often from the north for 1.0 weeks, from July 17 to July 24, with a peak percentage of 30% on July 22.
Wind Direction in Moscow
To characterize how pleasant the weather is in Moscow throughout the year, we compute two travel scores.
The tourism score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 65°F and 80°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Moscow for general outdoor tourist activities is from late June to mid August, with a peak score in the last week of July.
Tourism Score in Moscow
The beach/pool score favors clear, rainless days with perceived temperatures between 75°F and 90°F. Based on this score, the best time of year to visit Moscow for hot-weather activities is from early July to early August, with a peak score in the last week of July.
Beach/Pool Score in Moscow
For each hour between 8:00 AM and 9:00 PM of each day in the analysis period (1980 to 2016), independent scores are computed for perceived temperature, cloud cover, and total precipitation. Those scores are combined into a single hourly composite score, which is then aggregated into days, averaged over all the years in the analysis period, and smoothed.
Our cloud cover score is 10 for fully clear skies, falling linearly to 9 for mostly clear skies, and to 1 for fully overcast skies.
Our precipitation score, which is based on the three-hour precipitation centered on the hour in question, is 10 for no precipitation, falling linearly to 9 for trace precipitation, and to 0 for 0.04 inches of precipitation or more.
Our tourism temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 50°F, rising linearly to 9 for 65°F, to 10 for 75°F, falling linearly to 9 for 80°F, and to 1 for 90°F or hotter.
Our beach/pool temperature score is 0 for perceived temperatures below 65°F, rising linearly to 9 for 75°F, to 10 for 82°F, falling linearly to 9 for 90°F, and to 1 for 100°F or hotter.
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
The growing season in Moscow typically lasts for 5.1 months (156 days), from around May 1 to around October 5, rarely starting before April 11 or after May 22, and rarely ending before September 16 or after October 25.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in Moscow
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
Based on growing degree days alone, the first spring blooms in Moscow should appear around May 4, only rarely appearing before April 26 or after May 14.
Growing Degree Days in Moscow
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.4 months, from May 3 to August 16, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 4.9 kWh. The brightest month of the year in Moscow is June, with an average of 6.0 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 4.0 months, from October 18 to February 19, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 1.5 kWh. The darkest month of the year in Moscow is December, with an average of 0.4 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in Moscow
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Moscow are 55.752 deg latitude, 37.616 deg longitude, and 482 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Moscow contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 187 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 470 feet. Within 10 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (515 feet). Within 50 miles also contains significant variations in elevation (725 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Moscow is covered by artificial surfaces (98%), within 10 miles by artificial surfaces (82%) and trees (13%), and within 50 miles by trees (66%) and cropland (18%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Moscow, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There are 3 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Moscow.
For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Moscow according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
The estimated value at Moscow is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Moscow and a given station.
The stations contributing to this reconstruction are:
To get a sense of how much these sources agree with each other, you can view a comparison of Moscow and the stations that contribute to our estimates of its temperature history and climate. Please note that each source's contribution is adjusted for elevation and the relative change present in the MERRA-2 data.
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.
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