Average Weather in Moscow Russia
In Moscow, the summers are comfortable and partly cloudy and the winters are long, freezing, snowy, windy, and overcast. Over the course of the year, the temperature typically varies from 12°F to 76°F and is rarely below -8°F or above 86°F.
The warm season lasts for 3.5 months, from May 17 to September 2, with an average daily high temperature above 65°F. The hottest day of the year is July 23, with an average high of 76°F and low of 57°F.
The cold season lasts for 3.9 months, from November 15 to March 12, with an average daily high temperature below 34°F. The coldest day of the year is February 5, with an average low of 12°F and high of 23°F.
Average High and Low Temperature
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the entire year of hourly average temperatures. The horizontal axis is the day of the year, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature
In Moscow, the average percentage of the sky covered by clouds experiences significant seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The clearer part of the year in Moscow begins around April 18 and lasts for 5.1 months, ending around September 22. On August 11, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 60% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 40% of the time.
The cloudier part of the year begins around September 22 and lasts for 6.9 months, ending around April 18. On December 21, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy 77% of the time, and clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 23% of the time.
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. The chance of wet days in Moscow varies throughout the year.
The wetter season lasts 5.9 months, from May 16 to November 12, with a greater than 25% chance of a given day being a wet day. The chance of a wet day peaks at 35% on June 22.
The drier season lasts 6.1 months, from November 12 to May 16. The smallest chance of a wet day is 16% on March 21.
Among wet days, we distinguish between those that experience rain alone, snow alone, or a mixture of the two. Based on this categorization, the most common form of precipitation in Moscow changes throughout the year.
Rain alone is the most common for 8.3 months, from March 15 to November 24. The highest chance of a day with rain alone is 35% on June 22.
Snow alone is the most common for 3.6 months, from November 24 to March 15. The highest chance of a day with snow alone is 16% on January 1.
Daily Chance of Precipitation
To show variation within the months and not just the monthly totals, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Moscow experiences significant seasonal variation in monthly rainfall.
The rainy period of the year lasts for 8.5 months, from March 21 to December 6, with a sliding 31-day rainfall of at least 0.5 inches. The most rain falls during the 31 days centered around June 30, with an average total accumulation of 2.5 inches.
The rainless period of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from December 6 to March 21. The least rain falls around January 31, with an average total accumulation of 0.2 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall
We report snowfall in liquid-equivalent terms. The actual depth of new snowfall is typically between 5 and 10 times the liquid-equivalent amount, assuming the ground is frozen. Colder, drier snow tends to be on the higher end of that range and warmer, wetter snow on the lower end.
As with rainfall, we consider the snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day of the year. Moscow experiences some seasonal variation in monthly liquid-equivalent snowfall.
The snowy period of the year lasts for 6.0 months, from October 15 to April 14, with a sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent snowfall of at least 0.1 inches. The most snow falls during the 31 days centered around December 30, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.8 inches.
The snowless period of the year lasts for 6.0 months, from April 14 to October 15. The least snow falls around July 29, with an average total liquid-equivalent accumulation of 0.0 inches.
Average Liquid-Equivalent Monthly Snowfall
The length of the day in Moscow varies extremely over the course of the year. In 2017, the shortest day is December 21, with 7 hours, 0 minutes of daylight; the longest day is June 21, with 17 hours, 34 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight
The earliest sunrise is at 3:44 AM on June 18, and the latest sunrise is 5 hours, 15 minutes later at 8:59 AM on December 29. The earliest sunset is at 3:56 PM on December 14, and the latest sunset is 5 hours, 22 minutes later at 9:18 PM on June 24.
Daylight saving time (DST) is not observed in Moscow during 2017.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
The perceived humidity level in Moscow, as measured by the percentage of time in which the humidity comfort level is muggy, oppressive, or miserable, does not vary significantly over the course of the year, staying within 2% of 2% throughout.
Humidity Comfort Levels
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Moscow experiences mild seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The windier part of the year lasts for 6.3 months, from October 3 to April 11, with average wind speeds of more than 5.4 miles per hour. The windiest day of the year is January 25, with an average hourly wind speed of 6.6 miles per hour.
The calmer time of year lasts for 5.7 months, from April 11 to October 3. The calmest day of the year is July 29, with an average hourly wind speed of 4.2 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed
The predominant average hourly wind direction in Moscow varies throughout the year.
The wind is most often from the south for 2.3 months, from February 9 to April 19, with a peak percentage of 35% on February 17. The wind is most often from the west for 2.9 months, from April 19 to July 17 and for 6.5 months, from July 24 to February 9, with a peak percentage of 33% on June 5. The wind is most often from the north for 1.0 weeks, from July 17 to July 24, with a peak percentage of 30% on July 22.
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy experiences extreme seasonal variation over the course of the year.
The brighter period of the year lasts for 3.5 months, from May 2 to August 17, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter above 4.9 kWh. The brightest day of the year is June 19, with an average of 6.1 kWh.
The darker period of the year lasts for 4.1 months, from October 17 to February 19, with an average daily incident shortwave energy per square meter below 1.6 kWh. The darkest day of the year is December 21, with an average of 0.4 kWh.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Moscow are 55.752 deg latitude, 37.616 deg longitude, and 469 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Moscow contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 187 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 470 feet. Within 10 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (515 feet). Within 50 miles also contains significant variations in elevation (725 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Moscow is covered by artificial surfaces (98%), within 10 miles by artificial surfaces (82%) and trees (13%), and within 50 miles by trees (66%) and cropland (18%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Moscow, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There are 3 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Moscow.
For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Moscow according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
The estimated value at Moscow is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Moscow and a given station.
The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Sheremetyevo International Airport (41%, 28 kilometers, northwest); Vnukovo International Airport (38%, 29 kilometers, southwest); and Domodedovo International Airport (22%, 42 kilometers, southeast).
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.