Average Weather in October in Stazione Italy
Daily high temperatures decrease by 10°F, from 74°F to 64°F, rarely falling below 56°F or exceeding 82°F.
Daily low temperatures decrease by 8°F, from 57°F to 49°F, rarely falling below 39°F or exceeding 64°F.
For reference, on August 5, the hottest day of the year, temperatures in Stazione typically range from 66°F to 89°F, while on January 11, the coldest day of the year, they range from 36°F to 50°F.
Average High and Low Temperature in October
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the hourly average temperatures for the quarter of the year centered on October. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature in October
The month of October in Stazione experiences increasing cloud cover, with the percentage of time that the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy increasing from 45% to 55%.
The clearest day of the month is October 2, with clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy conditions 55% of the time.
For reference, on November 25, the cloudiest day of the year, the chance of overcast or mostly cloudy conditions is 62%, while on July 21, the clearest day of the year, the chance of clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy skies is 82%.
Cloud Cover Categories in October
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. In Stazione, the chance of a wet day over the course of October is increasing, starting the month at 26% and ending it at 31%.
For reference, the year's highest daily chance of a wet day is 32% on November 4, and its lowest chance is 13% on August 4.
Probability of Precipitation in October
To show variation within the month and not just the monthly total, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day.
The average sliding 31-day rainfall during October in Stazione is increasing, starting the month at 2.9 inches, when it rarely exceeds 5.2 inches or falls below 0.7 inches, and ending the month at 3.4 inches, when it rarely exceeds 5.6 inches or falls below 1.3 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall in October
Over the course of October in Stazione, the length of the day is rapidly decreasing. From the start to the end of the month, the length of the day decreases by 1 hour, 27 minutes, implying an average daily decrease of 2 minutes, 53 seconds, and weekly decrease of 20 minutes, 13 seconds.
The shortest day of the month is October 31, with 10 hours, 17 minutes of daylight and the longest day is October 1, with 11 hours, 44 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight in October
The latest sunrise of the month in Stazione is 7:45 AM on October 27 and the earliest sunrise is 59 minutes earlier at 6:46 AM on October 28.
The latest sunset is 6:57 PM on October 1 and the earliest sunset is 1 hour, 49 minutes earlier at 5:07 PM on October 31.
Daylight saving time (DST) ends at 2:00 AM on October 28, 2018, shifting sunrise and sunset to be an hour earlier.
For reference, on June 21, the longest day of the year, the Sun rises at 5:33 AM and sets 15 hours, 29 minutes later, at 9:02 PM, while on December 21, the shortest day of the year, it rises at 7:47 AM and sets 8 hours, 54 minutes later, at 4:40 PM.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in October
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
The chance that a given day will be muggy in Stazione is gradually decreasing during October, falling from 4% to 0% over the course of the month.
For reference, on August 7, the muggiest day of the year, there are muggy conditions 31% of the time, while on January 1, the least muggy day of the year, there are muggy conditions 0% of the time.
Humidity Comfort Levels in October
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Stazione is gradually increasing during October, increasing from 6.1 miles per hour to 7.0 miles per hour over the course of the month.
For reference, on February 3, the windiest day of the year, the daily average wind speed is 7.5 miles per hour, while on August 10, the calmest day of the year, the daily average wind speed is 5.2 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed in October
Wind Direction in October
Stazione is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.
The average surface water temperature in Stazione is decreasing during October, falling by 5°F, from 71°F to 66°F, over the course of the month.
Average Water Temperature in October
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
The growing season in Stazione typically lasts for 8.5 months (262 days), from around March 9 to around November 26, rarely starting before February 9 or after April 2, and rarely ending before November 6 or after December 18.
The month of October in Stazione is very likely fully within the growing season, with the chance that a given day is in the growing season gradually decreasing from 100% to 96% over the course of the month.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in October
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
The average accumulated growing degree days in Stazione are increasing during October, increasing by 329°F, from 3,584°F to 3,913°F, over the course of the month.
Growing Degree Days in October
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy in Stazione is decreasing during October, falling by 1.4 kWh, from 3.8 kWh to 2.4 kWh, over the course of the month.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in October
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Stazione are 43.915 deg latitude, 11.014 deg longitude, and 167 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Stazione contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 482 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 186 feet. Within 10 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (4,357 feet). Within 50 miles also contains extreme variations in elevation (7,087 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Stazione is covered by cropland (67%) and artificial surfaces (31%), within 10 miles by trees (47%) and cropland (39%), and within 50 miles by trees (47%) and cropland (39%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Stazione year round, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There are 3 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Stazione.
For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Stazione according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
The estimated value at Stazione is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Stazione and a given station.
The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Florence Peretola Airport (82%, 19 kilometers, southeast); Monte Cimone (2.2%, 41 kilometers, northwest); and Pisa International Airport (16%, 56 kilometers, southwest).
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.