Average Weather in October in Kalkaska Michigan, United States
In Kalkaska, the month of October is characterized by rapidly falling daily high temperatures, with daily highs decreasing by 13°F, from 62°F to 49°F over the course of the month, and rarely exceeding 75°F or dropping below 37°F.
Daily low temperatures decrease by 9°F, from 44°F to 35°F, rarely falling below 25°F or exceeding 55°F.
For reference, on July 19, the hottest day of the year, temperatures in Kalkaska typically range from 57°F to 80°F, while on January 29, the coldest day of the year, they range from 12°F to 26°F.
Average High and Low Temperature in October
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the hourly average temperatures for the quarter of the year centered on October. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature in October
The month of October in Kalkaska experiences increasing cloud cover, with the percentage of time that the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy increasing from 43% to 54%.
The clearest day of the month is October 1, with clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy conditions 57% of the time.
For reference, on January 11, the cloudiest day of the year, the chance of overcast or mostly cloudy conditions is 77%, while on August 3, the clearest day of the year, the chance of clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy skies is 68%.
Cloud Cover in October
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. In Kalkaska, the chance of a wet day over the course of October is decreasing, starting the month at 33% and ending it at 28%.
For reference, the year's highest daily chance of a wet day is 36% on September 22, and its lowest chance is 15% on February 2.
Over the course of October in Kalkaska, the chance of a day with only rain decreases from 33% to 25%, the chance of a day with mixed snow and rain remains an essentially constant 1% throughout, and the chance of a day with only snow remains an essentially constant 1% throughout.
Probability of Precipitation in October
To show variation within the month and not just the monthly total, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day.
The average sliding 31-day rainfall during October in Kalkaska is decreasing, starting the month at 3.1 inches, when it rarely exceeds 4.6 inches or falls below 1.5 inches, and ending the month at 2.3 inches, when it rarely exceeds 4.1 inches or falls below 0.8 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall in October
We report snowfall in liquid-equivalent terms. The actual depth of new snowfall is typically between 5 and 10 times the liquid-equivalent amount, assuming the ground is frozen. As with rainfall, we consider the liquid-equivalent snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day.
The average sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent snowfall during October in Kalkaska is essentially constant, remaining about 0.1 inches throughout, and rarely exceeding 0.3 inches or falling to 0.0 inches.
Average Monthly Liquid-Equivalent Snowfall in October
Over the course of October in Kalkaska, the length of the day is rapidly decreasing. From the start to the end of the month, the length of the day decreases by 1 hour, 29 minutes, implying an average daily decrease of 2 minutes, 58 seconds, and weekly decrease of 20 minutes, 47 seconds.
The shortest day of the month is October 31, with 10 hours, 13 minutes of daylight and the longest day is October 1, with 11 hours, 42 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight in October
The earliest sunrise of the month in Kalkaska is 7:38 AM on October 1 and the latest sunrise is 39 minutes later at 8:17 AM on October 31.
The latest sunset is 7:20 PM on October 1 and the earliest sunset is 50 minutes earlier at 6:30 PM on October 31.
Daylight saving time is observed in Kalkaska during 2017, but it neither starts nor ends during October, so the entire month is in daylight saving time.
For reference, on June 21, the longest day of the year, the Sun rises at 5:55 AM and sets 15 hours, 35 minutes later, at 9:30 PM, while on December 21, the shortest day of the year, it rises at 8:15 AM and sets 8 hours, 48 minutes later, at 5:02 PM.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight and Daylight Saving Time in October
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
The chance that a given day will be muggy in Kalkaska is essentially constant during October, remaining within 1% of 1% throughout.
For reference, on July 30, the muggiest day of the year, there are muggy conditions 17% of the time, while on January 1, the least muggy day of the year, there are muggy conditions 0% of the time.
Humidity Comfort Levels in October
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Kalkaska is gradually increasing during October, increasing from 5.3 miles per hour to 5.8 miles per hour over the course of the month.
For reference, on January 13, the windiest day of the year, the daily average wind speed is 6.6 miles per hour, while on August 3, the calmest day of the year, the daily average wind speed is 4.2 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed in October
Wind Direction in October
Kalkaska is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.
The average surface water temperature in Kalkaska is rapidly decreasing during October, falling by 8°F, from 59°F to 51°F, over the course of the month.
Average Water Temperature in October
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy in Kalkaska is decreasing during October, falling by 1.5 kWh, from 3.7 kWh to 2.3 kWh, over the course of the month.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in October
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Kalkaska are 44.734 deg latitude, -85.176 deg longitude, and 1,037 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Kalkaska contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 203 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 1,033 feet. Within 10 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (771 feet). Within 50 miles contains significant variations in elevation (1,234 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Kalkaska is covered by trees (46%), artificial surfaces (27%), and herbaceous vegetation (17%), within 10 miles by trees (63%) and cropland (13%), and within 50 miles by trees (58%) and water (18%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Kalkaska year round, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There are 4 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Kalkaska.
For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Kalkaska according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
The estimated value at Kalkaska is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Kalkaska and a given station.
The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Antrim County Airport (33%, 28 kilometers, north); Cherry Capital Airport (27%, 32 kilometers, west); Grayling, Grayling Army Airfield (26%, 36 kilometers, east); and Wexford County Airport (14%, 54 kilometers, south).
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.