Average Weather in January in Punalu‘u Hawaii, United States
Daily low temperatures are around 69°F, rarely falling below 64°F or exceeding 73°F. The lowest daily average low temperature is 68°F on January 31.
For reference, on August 31, the hottest day of the year, temperatures in Punalu‘u typically range from 75°F to 84°F, while on January 28, the coldest day of the year, they range from 68°F to 78°F.
Average High and Low Temperature in January
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the hourly average temperatures for the quarter of the year centered on January. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature in January
The month of January in Punalu‘u experiences essentially constant cloud cover, with the percentage of time that the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy remaining about 23% throughout the month. The lowest chance of overcast or mostly cloudy conditions is 21% on January 18.
The clearest day of the month is January 18, with clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy conditions 79% of the time.
For reference, on October 31, the cloudiest day of the year, the chance of overcast or mostly cloudy conditions is 41%, while on January 18, the clearest day of the year, the chance of clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy skies is 79%.
Cloud Cover Categories in January
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. In Punalu‘u, the chance of a wet day over the course of January is gradually decreasing, starting the month at 25% and ending it at 22%.
For reference, the year's highest daily chance of a wet day is 25% on January 11, and its lowest chance is 5% on June 20.
Probability of Precipitation in January
To show variation within the month and not just the monthly total, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day.
The average sliding 31-day rainfall during January in Punalu‘u is gradually decreasing, starting the month at 2.4 inches, when it rarely exceeds 6.2 inches or falls below 0.3 inches, and ending the month at 2.0 inches, when it rarely exceeds 4.7 inches or falls below 0.1 inches.
The highest average 31-day accumulation is 2.4 inches on January 1.
Average Monthly Rainfall in January
Over the course of January in Punalu‘u, the length of the day is gradually increasing. From the start to the end of the month, the length of the day increases by 20 minutes, implying an average daily increase of 41 seconds, and weekly increase of 4 minutes, 46 seconds.
The shortest day of the month is January 1, with 10 hours, 51 minutes of daylight and the longest day is January 31, with 11 hours, 11 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight in January
The latest sunrise of the month in Punalu‘u is 7:12 AM on January 15 and the earliest sunrise is 2 minutes, 42 seconds earlier at 7:09 AM on January 31.
The earliest sunset is 6:00 PM on January 1 and the latest sunset is 20 minutes later at 6:20 PM on January 31.
Daylight saving time is not observed in Punalu‘u during 2018.
For reference, on June 21, the longest day of the year, the Sun rises at 5:49 AM and sets 13 hours, 27 minutes later, at 7:16 PM, while on December 21, the shortest day of the year, it rises at 7:05 AM and sets 10 hours, 49 minutes later, at 5:54 PM.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight in January
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
The chance that a given day will be muggy in Punalu‘u is rapidly decreasing during January, falling from 48% to 37% over the course of the month.
For reference, on September 21, the muggiest day of the year, there are muggy conditions 97% of the time, while on March 8, the least muggy day of the year, there are muggy conditions 33% of the time.
Humidity Comfort Levels in January
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Punalu‘u is essentially constant during January, remaining within 0.1 miles per hour of 12.7 miles per hour throughout.
For reference, on July 3, the windiest day of the year, the daily average wind speed is 17.0 miles per hour, while on January 10, the calmest day of the year, the daily average wind speed is 12.6 miles per hour.
The lowest daily average wind speed during January is 12.6 miles per hour on January 11.
Average Wind Speed in January
Wind Direction in January
Punalu‘u is located near a large body of water (e.g., ocean, sea, or large lake). This section reports on the wide-area average surface temperature of that water.
The average surface water temperature in Punalu‘u is essentially constant during January, remaining around 76°F throughout.
Average Water Temperature in January
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
Temperatures in Punalu‘u are sufficiently warm year round that it is not entirely meaningful to discuss the growing season in these terms. We nevertheless include the chart below as an illustration of the distribution of temperatures experienced throughout the year.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in January
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
The average accumulated growing degree days in Punalu‘u are rapidly increasing during January, increasing by 681°F, from 1°F to 681°F, over the course of the month.
Growing Degree Days in January
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy in Punalu‘u is gradually increasing during January, rising by 0.5 kWh, from 4.4 kWh to 4.9 kWh, over the course of the month.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in January
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Punalu‘u are 21.570 deg latitude, -157.876 deg longitude, and 23 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Punalu‘u contains very significant variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 1,677 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 197 feet. Within 10 miles contains very significant variations in elevation (2,851 feet). Within 50 miles contains large variations in elevation (4,121 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Punalu‘u is covered by water (71%) and trees (17%), within 10 miles by water (55%) and trees (37%), and within 50 miles by water (92%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Punalu‘u year round, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There are 2 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Punalu‘u.
For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Punalu‘u according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
The estimated value at Punalu‘u is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Punalu‘u and a given station.
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.