Average Weather in December in Moscow Russia
Daily high temperatures decrease by 4°F, from 29°F to 25°F, rarely falling below 8°F or exceeding 39°F.
Daily low temperatures decrease by 5°F, from 21°F to 15°F, rarely falling below -5°F or exceeding 34°F.
For reference, on July 24, the hottest day of the year, temperatures in Moscow typically range from 58°F to 76°F, while on February 5, the coldest day of the year, they range from 12°F to 23°F.
Average High and Low Temperature in December
The figure below shows you a compact characterization of the hourly average temperatures for the quarter of the year centered on December. The horizontal axis is the day, the vertical axis is the hour of the day, and the color is the average temperature for that hour and day.
Average Hourly Temperature in December
Washington, Vermont, United States (4,434 miles away); Hancock, Michigan, United States (4,682 miles); and Shelburne, Canada (4,653 miles) are the far-away foreign places with temperatures most similar to Moscow (view comparison).
The month of December in Moscow experiences essentially constant cloud cover, with the percentage of time that the sky is overcast or mostly cloudy remaining about 76% throughout the month. The highest chance of overcast or mostly cloudy conditions is 77% on December 21.
The clearest day of the month is December 7, with clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy conditions 25% of the time.
For reference, on December 21, the cloudiest day of the year, the chance of overcast or mostly cloudy conditions is 77%, while on August 11, the clearest day of the year, the chance of clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy skies is 60%.
Cloud Cover Categories in December
A wet day is one with at least 0.04 inches of liquid or liquid-equivalent precipitation. In Moscow, the chance of a wet day over the course of December is essentially constant, remaining around 22% throughout.
For reference, the year's highest daily chance of a wet day is 35% on June 22, and its lowest chance is 16% on March 22.
Over the course of December in Moscow, the chance of a day with only rain decreases from 7% to 4%, the chance of a day with mixed snow and rain remains an essentially constant 4% throughout, and the chance of a day with only snow increases from 10% to 14%.
Probability of Precipitation in December
To show variation within the month and not just the monthly total, we show the rainfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day.
The average sliding 31-day rainfall during December in Moscow is gradually decreasing, starting the month at 0.6 inches, when it rarely exceeds 1.3 inches or falls below 0.1 inches, and ending the month at 0.3 inches, when it rarely exceeds 0.7 inches.
Average Monthly Rainfall in December
We report snowfall in liquid-equivalent terms. The actual depth of new snowfall is typically between 5 and 10 times the liquid-equivalent amount, assuming the ground is frozen. As with rainfall, we consider the liquid-equivalent snowfall accumulated over a sliding 31-day period centered around each day.
The average sliding 31-day liquid-equivalent snowfall during December in Moscow is essentially constant, remaining about 0.7 inches throughout, and rarely exceeding 1.5 inches or falling below 0.1 inches.
The highest average 31-day liquid-equivalent accumulation is 0.8 inches on December 29.
Average Monthly Liquid-Equivalent Snowfall in December
Over the course of December in Moscow, the length of the day is gradually decreasing. From the start to the end of the month, the length of the day decreases by 21 minutes, implying an average daily decrease of 42 seconds, and weekly decrease of 4 minutes, 57 seconds.
The shortest day of the month is December 21, with 7 hours, 0 minutes of daylight and the longest day is December 1, with 7 hours, 28 minutes of daylight.
Hours of Daylight and Twilight in December
The earliest sunrise of the month in Moscow is 8:34 AM on December 1 and the latest sunrise is 25 minutes later at 8:59 AM on December 29.
The earliest sunset is 3:56 PM on December 14 and the latest sunset is 10 minutes later at 4:05 PM on December 31.
Daylight saving time is not observed in Moscow during 2018.
For reference, on June 21, the longest day of the year, the Sun rises at 3:44 AM and sets 17 hours, 34 minutes later, at 9:18 PM, while on December 21, the shortest day of the year, it rises at 8:57 AM and sets 7 hours, 0 minutes later, at 3:57 PM.
Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight in December
We base the humidity comfort level on the dew point, as it determines whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid. Unlike temperature, which typically varies significantly between night and day, dew point tends to change more slowly, so while the temperature may drop at night, a muggy day is typically followed by a muggy night.
The chance that a given day will be muggy in Moscow is essentially constant during December, remaining around 0% throughout.
For reference, on July 10, the muggiest day of the year, there are muggy conditions 5% of the time, while on January 1, the least muggy day of the year, there are muggy conditions 0% of the time.
Humidity Comfort Levels in December
This section discusses the wide-area hourly average wind vector (speed and direction) at 10 meters above the ground. The wind experienced at any given location is highly dependent on local topography and other factors, and instantaneous wind speed and direction vary more widely than hourly averages.
The average hourly wind speed in Moscow is gradually increasing during December, increasing from 11.2 miles per hour to 11.9 miles per hour over the course of the month.
For reference, on January 25, the windiest day of the year, the daily average wind speed is 12.2 miles per hour, while on July 29, the calmest day of the year, the daily average wind speed is 7.7 miles per hour.
Average Wind Speed in December
Wind Direction in December
Definitions of the growing season vary throughout the world, but for the purposes of this report, we define it as the longest continuous period of non-freezing temperatures (≥ 32°F) in the year (the calendar year in the Northern Hemisphere, or from July 1 until June 30 in the Southern Hemisphere).
The growing season in Moscow typically lasts for 5.1 months (156 days), from around May 1 to around October 5, rarely starting before April 11 or after May 22, and rarely ending before September 16 or after October 25.
The month of December in Moscow is reliably fully outside of the growing season.
Time Spent in Various Temperature Bands and the Growing Season in December
Growing degree days are a measure of yearly heat accumulation used to predict plant and animal development, and defined as the integral of warmth above a base temperature, discarding any excess above a maximum temperature. In this report, we use a base of 50°F and a cap of 86°F.
The average accumulated growing degree days in Moscow are essentially constant during December, remaining around 1,773°F throughout.
Growing Degree Days in December
This section discusses the total daily incident shortwave solar energy reaching the surface of the ground over a wide area, taking full account of seasonal variations in the length of the day, the elevation of the Sun above the horizon, and absorption by clouds and other atmospheric constituents. Shortwave radiation includes visible light and ultraviolet radiation.
The average daily incident shortwave solar energy in Moscow is essentially constant during December, remaining within 0.1 kWh of 0.5 kWh throughout.
The lowest average daily incident shortwave solar energy during December is 0.4 kWh on December 21.
Average Daily Incident Shortwave Solar Energy in December
For the purposes of this report, the geographical coordinates of Moscow are 55.752 deg latitude, 37.616 deg longitude, and 469 ft elevation.
The topography within 2 miles of Moscow contains only modest variations in elevation, with a maximum elevation change of 187 feet and an average elevation above sea level of 470 feet. Within 10 miles contains only modest variations in elevation (515 feet). Within 50 miles also contains significant variations in elevation (725 feet).
The area within 2 miles of Moscow is covered by artificial surfaces (98%), within 10 miles by artificial surfaces (82%) and trees (13%), and within 50 miles by trees (66%) and cropland (18%).
This report illustrates the typical weather in Moscow year round, based on a statistical analysis of historical hourly weather reports and model reconstructions from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2016.
Temperature and Dew Point
There are 3 weather stations near enough to contribute to our estimation of the temperature and dew point in Moscow.
For each station, the records are corrected for the elevation difference between that station and Moscow according to the International Standard Atmosphere , and by the relative change present in the MERRA-2 satellite-era reanalysis between the two locations.
The estimated value at Moscow is computed as the weighted average of the individual contributions from each station, with weights proportional to the inverse of the distance between Moscow and a given station.
The stations contributing to this reconstruction are: Sheremetyevo International Airport (34%, 28 kilometers, northwest); Ostafyevo International Airport (34%, 28 kilometers, south); and Vnukovo International Airport (32%, 29 kilometers, southwest).
All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Tables of the Sun, Moon and Planets , by Jean Meeus.
All other weather data, including cloud cover, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and solar flux, come from NASA's MERRA-2 Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis . This reanalysis combines a variety of wide-area measurements in a state-of-the-art global meteorological model to reconstruct the hourly history of weather throughout the world on a 50-kilometer grid.
Land Use data comes from the Global Land Cover SHARE database , published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Elevation data comes from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) , published by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .
Time zones for aiports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .
Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.
The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.
We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.
We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.