This report describes the historical weather record at the Memphis International Airport (Memphis, Tennessee, United States) during 2013. This station has records back to January 1948.
Memphis, Tennessee has a warm humid temperate climate with hot summers and no dry season. The area within 25 mi of this station is covered by forests (37%), croplands (34%), grasslands (16%), built-up areas (8%), and lakes and rivers (4%)
Daylight saving time (DST) was observed at Memphis, Tennessee during 2013. There were two time changes during 2013:
2013 was not a leap year, so it has 365 days and no February 29th. The first leap year before 2013 was 2012 and the first after was 2016.
The summer and winter solstices and the spring and fall equinoxes mark the passing of the seasons. They fall on nearly the same day each year, with differences of a day or two depending on the year. In 2013 they occurred on:
|Spring Equinox||Wednesday, 20 March 2013.|
|Summer Solstice||Friday, 21 June 2013.|
|Fall Equinox||Sunday, 22 September 2013.|
|Winter Solstice||Saturday, 21 December 2013.|
The hottest day of 2013 was June 27, with a high temperature of 97°F. For reference, on that day the average high temperature is 90°F and the high temperature exceeds 96°F only one day in ten. The hottest month of 2013 was August with an average daily high temperature of 89°F.
Relative to the average, the hottest day was January 12. The high temperature that day was 73°F, compared to the average of 48°F, a difference of 25°F. In relative terms the warmest month was January, with an average high temperature of 53°F, compared to an typical value of 49°F.
The longest warm spell was from June 19 to June 28, constituting 10 consecutive days with warmer than average high temperatures. The month of September had the largest fraction of warmer than average days with 70% days with higher than average high temperatures.
The coldest day of 2013 was November 28, with a low temperature of 22°F. For reference, on that day the average low temperature is 41°F and the low temperature drops below 30°F only one day in ten. The coldest month of 2013 was December with an average daily low temperature of 35°F.
Relative to the average, the coldest day was May 4. The low temperature that day was 36°F, compared to the average of 60°F, a difference of 24°F. In relative terms the coldest month was March, with an average low temperature of 40°F, compared to an typical value of 45°F.
The longest cold spell was from February 27 to March 9, constituting 11 consecutive days with cooler than average low temperatures. The month of March had the largest fraction of cooler than average days with 71% days with lower than average low temperatures.
The clearest month of 2013 was September, with 33% of days being more clear than cloudy. The longest spell of clear weather was from January 18 to January 22, constituting 5 consecutive days that were clearer than they were cloudy.
The cloudiest month of 2013 was December, with 65% of days being more cloudy than clear. The longest spell of cloudy weather was from January 8 to January 17, constituting 10 consecutive days that were cloudier than they were clear.
This station reports both the quantity of liquid precipitation and categorical observations of precipitation (e.g., moderate rain, or heavy snow). Both are subject to erroneous reports, but the former is particularly prone to false reports, especially ones indicating an excessive quantity of precipitation. Please bear this in mind when reading the extrema reported in this section.
The day with the largest quantity of precipitation was May 21. That day saw 3.862" of liquid (or liquid equivalent) precipitation, compared to a median value of 0.254". The month with the most precipitation was May, with 10.770", compared to a median value of 5.161".
As determined by quantitative measurements, the longest dry spell was from August 21 to September 1, constituting 12 consecutive days with no measured precipitation. The month with the largest fraction of dry days was August, with 77% of days reporting no measured precipitation at all.
The month with the largest fraction of days with at least some measured precipitation was February, with 43% of days reporting some measured precipitation.
This station reports when significant weather events (including precipitation) are visually observed at or near the station. Such events do not always correspond to measured quantities of liquid equivalent precipitation, such as when the event is near by not at the station, or in the case of solid precipitation that does not melt in the collection basin.
The day in 2013 with the most precipitation observations was January 10. There were 19 hourly weather reports that day (out of a maximum of 24) in which some form of precipitation was observated at or near the station. The month with the most precipitation observations was January, with 95 hourly present weather reports involving some form of precipitation.
As determined by the present weather reports, the longest dry spell was from August 21 to September 1, constituting 12 consecutive days with no observed precipitation. The month with the largest fraction of days without observed precipitation was August, with 71% of days reporting no observed precipitation at all.
The month with the largest fraction of days with at least some observed precipitation was February, with 50% of days reporting some observed precipitation.
In this section we consider only those weather reports that indicate liquid precipitation. For the purposes of this analysis, we include thunderstorms even though some thunderstorms are not accompanied by liquid precipitation.
The month of 2013 with the largest number of those reports was January, with a total of 94 reports. The day with the largest number of those reports was January 10, with a total of 19 reports.
This station reports when snow is observed falling but does not report the quantity of snow that has fallen or the depth of snow on the ground.
In this section we consider hourly weather reports that contain an observation of falling snow. These reports do not necessarily correspond to accumulation.
The first reported snow fall in 2013 was on November 24; the last was on March 22. The month of 2013 with the largest number of those reports was March, with a total of 15 reports. The day with the largest number of those reports was March 2, with a total of 9 reports.
Humidity is an important factor in determining how weather conditions feel to a person experiencing them. Hot and humid days feel even hotter than hot and dry days because the high level of water content in humid air discourages the evaporation of sweat from a person's skin.
When reading the graph below, keep in mind that the hottest part of the day tends to be the least humid, so the daily low (brown) traces are more relevant for understanding daytime comfort than the daily high (blue) traces, which typically occur during the night. Applying that observation, the least humid month of 2013 was November with an average daily low humidity of 41%, and the most humid month was December with an average daily low humidity of 56%.
But it is important to keep in mind that humidity does not tell the whole picture and the dew point is often a better measure of how comfortable a person will find a given set of weather conditions. Please see the next section for continued discussion of this point.
Dew point is the temperature below which water vapor will condense into liquid water. It is therefore also related to the rate of evaporation of liquid water. Since the evaporation of sweat is an important cooling mechanism for the human body, the dew point is an important measurement for understanding how dry, comfortable, or humid a given set of weather conditions will feel.
Generally speaking, dew points below 50°F will feel a bit dry to some people, but comfortable to people accustomed to dry conditions; dew points from 50°F to 68°F are fairly comfortable to most people, and dew points above 68°F are increasingly uncomfortable, becoming oppressive around 77°F.
To take some examples, and basing our categorization on the daily high dew point in 2013, January had 22 dry days, 9 comfortable days, and no humid days; April had 13 dry days, 15 comfortable days, and 2 humid days; July had no dry days, 9 comfortable days, and 22 humid days; and October had 6 dry days, 19 comfortable days, and 6 humid days.
The highest sustained wind speed was 30 mph, occurring on May 31; the highest daily mean wind speed was 18 mph (January 29); and the highest wind gust speed was 52 mph (June 27).
The windiest month was April, with an average wind speed of 9 mph. The least windy month was August, with an average wind speed of 6 mph.
Visibility is the maximum distance at which a given reference object or light can be clearly discerned. In the United States, visibilities that are greater than or equal to 10 miles are typically reported as 10 miles.
The day of 2013 with the lowest average visibility was December 8, with an average visibility of 3.4 mi. The month with the lowest average visibility was January, with an average visibility of 8.8 mi. With an average visibility of 9.8 mi, the month of July had the highest average visibility.
The cloud ceiling is the altitude of the lowest layer of clouds that are at categorized as broken (mostly cloudy) or overcast (cloudy). If no such cloud layer exists then the ceiling is unlimited and no value is reported.
The day of 2013 with the lowest average cloud ceiling was January 6, with an average cloud ceiling of 328'. The month with the lowest average cloud ceiling was December, with an average cloud ceiling of 7912'. The month of June has the highest average cloud ceiling, with an average cloud ceiling of 15624'.