This report describes the historical weather record at the Baltimore-Washington Thurgood Marshall International Airport (Baltimore, Maryland, United States) during 2012. This station has records back to December 1947.
Baltimore, Maryland has a warm humid temperate climate with hot summers and no dry season. The area within 25 mi of this station is covered by forests (48%), built-up areas (23%), oceans and seas (18%), and croplands (9%)
Daylight saving time (DST) was observed at Baltimore, Maryland during 2012. There were two time changes during 2012:
2012 was a leap year and thus has 366 days rather than the normal 365. Leap years occur every fourth year and the extra day is always February 29th. In 2012 February 29th falls on a Wednesday.
The summer and winter solstices and the spring and fall equinoxes mark the passing of the seasons. They fall on nearly the same day each year, with differences of a day or two depending on the year. In 2012 they occurred on:
|Spring Equinox||Tuesday, 20 March 2012.|
|Summer Solstice||Wednesday, 20 June 2012.|
|Fall Equinox||Saturday, 22 September 2012.|
|Winter Solstice||Friday, 21 December 2012.|
The hottest day of 2012 was July 7, with a high temperature of 102°F. For reference, on that day the average high temperature is 87°F and the high temperature exceeds 95°F only one day in ten. The hottest month of 2012 was July with an average daily high temperature of 91°F.
Relative to the average, the hottest day was March 13. The high temperature that day was 80°F, compared to the average of 53°F, a difference of 27°F. In relative terms the warmest month was March, with an average high temperature of 64°F, compared to an typical value of 54°F.
The longest warm spell was from January 23 to February 8, constituting 17 consecutive days with warmer than average high temperatures. The month of March had the largest fraction of warmer than average days with 77% days with higher than average high temperatures.
The coldest day of 2012 was January 4, with a low temperature of 14°F. For reference, on that day the average low temperature is 27°F and the low temperature drops below 16°F only one day in ten. The coldest month of 2012 was January with an average daily low temperature of 30°F.
Relative to the average, the coldest day was January 4. The low temperature that day was 14°F, compared to the average of 27°F, a difference of 13°F. In relative terms the coldest month was November, with an average low temperature of 34°F, compared to an typical value of 38°F.
The longest cold spell was from August 16 to August 24, constituting 9 consecutive days with cooler than average low temperatures. The month of November had the largest fraction of cooler than average days with 80% days with lower than average low temperatures.
The clearest month of 2012 was March, with 29% of days being more clear than cloudy. The longest spell of clear weather was from September 10 to September 14, constituting 5 consecutive days that were clearer than they were cloudy.
The cloudiest month of 2012 was December, with 71% of days being more cloudy than clear. The longest spell of cloudy weather was from October 23 to November 4, constituting 13 consecutive days that were cloudier than they were clear.
This station reports both the quantity of liquid precipitation and categorical observations of precipitation (e.g., moderate rain, or heavy snow). Both are subject to erroneous reports, but the former is particularly prone to false reports, especially ones indicating an excessive quantity of precipitation. Please bear this in mind when reading the extrema reported in this section.
The day with the largest quantity of precipitation was October 29. That day saw 5.280" of liquid (or liquid equivalent) precipitation, compared to a median value of 0.178". The month with the most precipitation was October, with 8.929", compared to a median value of 2.819".
As determined by quantitative measurements, the longest dry spell was from April 3 to April 18, constituting 16 consecutive days with no measured precipitation. The month with the largest fraction of dry days was November, with 87% of days reporting no measured precipitation at all.
The month with the largest fraction of days with at least some measured precipitation was August, with 45% of days reporting some measured precipitation.
This station reports when significant weather events (including precipitation) are visually observed at or near the station. Such events do not always correspond to measured quantities of liquid equivalent precipitation, such as when the event is near by not at the station, or in the case of solid precipitation that does not melt in the collection basin.
The day in 2012 with the most precipitation observations was October 29. There were 24 hourly weather reports that day (out of a maximum of 24) in which some form of precipitation was observated at or near the station. The month with the most precipitation observations was October, with 102 hourly present weather reports involving some form of precipitation.
As determined by the present weather reports, the longest dry spell was from November 14 to November 27, constituting 14 consecutive days with no observed precipitation. The month with the largest fraction of days without observed precipitation was November, with 80% of days reporting no observed precipitation at all.
The month with the largest fraction of days with at least some observed precipitation was May, with 65% of days reporting some observed precipitation.
In this section we consider only those weather reports that indicate liquid precipitation. For the purposes of this analysis, we include thunderstorms even though some thunderstorms are not accompanied by liquid precipitation.
The month of 2012 with the largest number of those reports was October, with a total of 102 reports. The day with the largest number of those reports was October 29, with a total of 24 reports.
This station reports both when snow is observed to be falling and the measured depth of the snow on the ground. Both are subject to erroneous reports, but the latter is significantly less reliable. Please bear this in mind when reading this section.
In this section we consider hourly weather reports that contain an observation of falling snow. These reports do not necessarily correspond to accumulation.
The first reported snow fall in 2012 was on November 13; the last was on March 5. The month of 2012 with the largest number of those reports was February, with a total of 23 reports. The day with the largest number of those reports was February 11, with a total of 10 reports.
Snow depth on the ground is an optional and inconsistently reported part of standard weather reports. It is rarely reported more often than every six hours, it is often skipped, it is often reported erroneously, and a snow depth of zero is normally not distinguished from a missing report. These issues (particularly the last one) make it hard to collect statistics on snow depth with any confidence. To overcome this issue, we base our statistics on only those reports with present non-zero measurements of snow depth. Reports that fail to mention snow that is present, and reports that do not report snow depth because there is no snow on the ground are excluded because they cannot be distinguished from one another.
The first reported accumulation in 2012 was on December 26. The last day of the snow season with snow reported on the ground was February 12. The day with the deepest snow depth was January 22, with an average snow depth of 1.2" over the course of the day. The longest stretch of time during which there was always snow on the ground was from January 21 to January 25 (5 consecutive days).
Humidity is an important factor in determining how weather conditions feel to a person experiencing them. Hot and humid days feel even hotter than hot and dry days because the high level of water content in humid air discourages the evaporation of sweat from a person's skin.
When reading the graph below, keep in mind that the hottest part of the day tends to be the least humid, so the daily low (brown) traces are more relevant for understanding daytime comfort than the daily high (blue) traces, which typically occur during the night. Applying that observation, the least humid month of 2012 was April with an average daily low humidity of 32%, and the most humid month was December with an average daily low humidity of 56%.
But it is important to keep in mind that humidity does not tell the whole picture and the dew point is often a better measure of how comfortable a person will find a given set of weather conditions. Please see the next section for continued discussion of this point.
Dew point is the temperature below which water vapor will condense into liquid water. It is therefore also related to the rate of evaporation of liquid water. Since the evaporation of sweat is an important cooling mechanism for the human body, the dew point is an important measurement for understanding how dry, comfortable, or humid a given set of weather conditions will feel.
Generally speaking, dew points below 50°F will feel a bit dry to some people, but comfortable to people accustomed to dry conditions; dew points from 50°F to 68°F are fairly comfortable to most people, and dew points above 68°F are increasingly uncomfortable, becoming oppressive around 77°F.
To take some examples, and basing our categorization on the daily high dew point in 2012, January had 29 dry days, 2 comfortable days, and no humid days; April had 20 dry days, 10 comfortable days, and no humid days; July had no dry days, 3 comfortable days, and 28 humid days; and October had 10 dry days, 18 comfortable days, and 3 humid days.
The highest sustained wind speed was 40 mph, occurring on October 29; the highest daily mean wind speed was 21 mph (February 25); and the highest wind gust speed was 66 mph (June 29).
The windiest month was January, with an average wind speed of 7 mph. The least windy month was August, with an average wind speed of 4 mph.
Visibility is the maximum distance at which a given reference object or light can be clearly discerned. In the United States, visibilities that are greater than or equal to 10 miles are typically reported as 10 miles.
The day of 2012 with the lowest average visibility was December 17, with an average visibility of 0.5 mi. The month with the lowest average visibility was December, with an average visibility of 7.8 mi. With an average visibility of 9.6 mi, the month of June had the highest average visibility.
The cloud ceiling is the altitude of the lowest layer of clouds that are at categorized as broken (mostly cloudy) or overcast (cloudy). If no such cloud layer exists then the ceiling is unlimited and no value is reported.
The day of 2012 with the lowest average cloud ceiling was December 17, with an average cloud ceiling of 200'. The month with the lowest average cloud ceiling was October, with an average cloud ceiling of 10612'. The month of July has the highest average cloud ceiling, with an average cloud ceiling of 16643'.