This report describes the historical weather record at the Turku Airport (Turku, Finland) during 1974. This station has records back to January 1952.
Turku has a humid continental climate with warm summers and no dry season. The area within 25 mi of this station is covered by forests (65%), oceans and seas (20%), and croplands (12%)
Daylight saving time (DST) was not observed at Turku during 1974.
1974 was not a leap year, so it has 365 days and no February 29th. The first leap year before 1974 was 1972 and the first after was 1976.
The summer and winter solstices and the spring and fall equinoxes mark the passing of the seasons. They fall on nearly the same day each year, with differences of a day or two depending on the year. In 1974 they occurred on:
|Spring Equinox||Thursday, 21 March 1974.|
|Summer Solstice||Friday, 21 June 1974.|
|Fall Equinox||Monday, 23 September 1974.|
|Winter Solstice||Sunday, 22 December 1974.|
The hottest day of 1974 was June 16, with a high temperature of 81°F. For reference, on that day the average high temperature is 66°F and the high temperature exceeds 76°F only one day in ten. The hottest month of 1974 was August with an average daily high temperature of 66°F.
Relative to the average, the hottest day was May 17. The high temperature that day was 75°F, compared to the average of 59°F, a difference of 16°F. In relative terms the warmest month was February, with an average high temperature of 34°F, compared to an typical value of 27°F.
The longest warm spell was from January 29 to March 7, constituting 38 consecutive days with warmer than average high temperatures. The month of February had the largest fraction of warmer than average days with 100% days with higher than average high temperatures.
The coldest day of 1974 was March 10, with a low temperature of 12°F. For reference, on that day the average low temperature is 21°F and the low temperature drops below 8°F only one day in ten. The coldest month of 1974 was March with an average daily low temperature of 23°F.
Relative to the average, the coldest day was April 12. The low temperature that day was 16°F, compared to the average of 30°F, a difference of 14°F. In relative terms the coldest month was May, with an average low temperature of 35°F, compared to an typical value of 40°F.
The longest cold spell was from July 24 to August 11, constituting 19 consecutive days with cooler than average low temperatures. The month of May had the largest fraction of cooler than average days with 81% days with lower than average low temperatures.
The longest freezing spell was from January 8 to January 15, constituting 8 consecutive days with temperatures strictly below freezing.
The clearest month of 1974 was April, with 57% of days being more clear than cloudy. The longest spell of clear weather was from April 24 to May 4, constituting 11 consecutive days that were clearer than they were cloudy.
The cloudiest month of 1974 was November, with 87% of days being more cloudy than clear. The longest spell of cloudy weather was from October 28 to November 9, constituting 13 consecutive days that were cloudier than they were clear.
This station provides hourly reports of significant weather events at and around the station, but does not report the quantity of precipitation at the station itself. This is common for weather stations located outside of the United States, and for a small subset of stations in the United States that are located at lesser used and smaller airports.
This station reports when significant weather events (including precipitation) are visually observed at or near the station. Such events do not always correspond to measured quantities of liquid equivalent precipitation, such as when the event is near by not at the station, or in the case of solid precipitation that does not melt in the collection basin.
The day in 1974 with the most precipitation observations was February 8. There were 24 hourly weather reports that day (out of a maximum of 24) in which some form of precipitation was observated at or near the station. The month with the most precipitation observations was December, with 314 hourly present weather reports involving some form of precipitation.
As determined by the present weather reports, the longest dry spell was from March 23 to April 10, constituting 19 consecutive days with no observed precipitation. The month with the largest fraction of days without observed precipitation was March, with 74% of days reporting no observed precipitation at all.
The month with the largest fraction of days with at least some observed precipitation was December, with 97% of days reporting some observed precipitation.
In this section we consider only those weather reports that indicate liquid precipitation. For the purposes of this analysis, we include thunderstorms even though some thunderstorms are not accompanied by liquid precipitation.
The month of 1974 with the largest number of those reports was October, with a total of 271 reports. The day with the largest number of those reports was November 1, with a total of 24 reports.
This station reports when snow is observed falling but does not report the quantity of snow that has fallen or the depth of snow on the ground.
In this section we consider hourly weather reports that contain an observation of falling snow. These reports do not necessarily correspond to accumulation.
The first reported snow fall in 1974 was on September 6; the last was on May 24. The month of 1974 with the largest number of those reports was January, with a total of 178 reports. The day with the largest number of those reports was February 8, with a total of 24 reports.
Humidity is an important factor in determining how weather conditions feel to a person experiencing them. Hot and humid days feel even hotter than hot and dry days because the high level of water content in humid air discourages the evaporation of sweat from a person's skin.
When reading the graph below, keep in mind that the hottest part of the day tends to be the least humid, so the daily low (brown) traces are more relevant for understanding daytime comfort than the daily high (blue) traces, which typically occur during the night. Applying that observation, the least humid month of 1974 was May with an average daily low humidity of 36%, and the most humid month was February with an average daily low humidity of 84%.
But it is important to keep in mind that humidity does not tell the whole picture and the dew point is often a better measure of how comfortable a person will find a given set of weather conditions. Please see the next section for continued discussion of this point.
Dew point is the temperature below which water vapor will condense into liquid water. It is therefore also related to the rate of evaporation of liquid water. Since the evaporation of sweat is an important cooling mechanism for the human body, the dew point is an important measurement for understanding how dry, comfortable, or humid a given set of weather conditions will feel.
Generally speaking, dew points below 50°F will feel a bit dry to some people, but comfortable to people accustomed to dry conditions; dew points from 50°F to 68°F are fairly comfortable to most people, and dew points above 68°F are increasingly uncomfortable, becoming oppressive around 77°F.
To take some examples, and basing our categorization on the daily high dew point in 1974, January had 31 dry days, no comfortable days, and no humid days; April had 30 dry days, no comfortable days, and no humid days; July had no dry days, 31 comfortable days, and no humid days; and October had 28 dry days, 3 comfortable days, and no humid days.
The highest sustained wind speed was 48 mph, occurring on August 29; the highest daily mean wind speed was 17 mph (October 22); and the highest wind gust speed was 41 mph (November 17).
The windiest month was January, with an average wind speed of 7 mph. The least windy month was March, with an average wind speed of 4 mph.
Visibility is the maximum distance at which a given reference object or light can be clearly discerned. In the United States, visibilities that are greater than or equal to 10 miles are typically reported as 10 miles.
The day of 1974 with the lowest average visibility was January 5, with an average visibility of 0.3 mi. The month with the lowest average visibility was February, with an average visibility of 3.5 mi. With an average visibility of 10.7 mi, the month of May had the highest average visibility.
The cloud ceiling is the altitude of the lowest layer of clouds that are at categorized as broken (mostly cloudy) or overcast (cloudy). If no such cloud layer exists then the ceiling is unlimited and no value is reported.
The day of 1974 with the lowest average cloud ceiling was January 23, with an average cloud ceiling of 98'. The month with the lowest average cloud ceiling was February, with an average cloud ceiling of 1108'. The month of June has the highest average cloud ceiling, with an average cloud ceiling of 9243'.