Fall 2015 Weather History at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Indonesia

This report shows the past weather for Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, providing a weather history for the fall of 2015. It features all historical weather data series we have available, including the Soekarno-Hatta International Airport temperature history for the fall of 2015. You can drill down from year to month and even day level reports by clicking on the graphs.

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Temperature History in the Fall of 2015

Temperature history in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay70°F70°F75°F75°F80°F80°F85°F85°F90°F90°F95°F95°FSummerWinter
The daily range of reported temperatures (gray bars) and 24-hour highs (red ticks) and lows (blue ticks), placed over the daily average high (faint red line) and low (faint blue line) temperature, with 25th to 75th and 10th to 90th percentile bands.

Hourly Temperature in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Hourly Temperature in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay12 AM12 AM3 AM3 AM6 AM6 AM9 AM9 AM12 PM12 PM3 PM3 PM6 PM6 PM9 PM9 PM12 AM12 AMSummerWinterwarmhot
frigid 15°F freezing 32°F very cold 45°F cold 55°F cool 65°F comfortable 75°F warm 85°F hot 95°F sweltering
The hourly reported temperature, color coded into bands. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.
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© Esri, et al.

Compare Soekarno-Hatta International Airport to another city:

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Cloud Cover in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Cloud Cover in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay12 AM12 AM3 AM3 AM6 AM6 AM9 AM9 AM12 PM12 PM3 PM3 PM6 PM6 PM9 PM9 PM12 AM12 AMSummerWinter
0% clear 20% mostly clear 40% partly cloudy 60% mostly cloudy 80% overcast 100%
no significant cloudno cloud detectedceiling and visibility ok
The hourly reported cloud coverage, categorized by the percentage of the sky covered by clouds.

Observed Weather in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Observed Weather in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay12 AM12 AM3 AM3 AM6 AM6 AM9 AM9 AM12 PM12 PM3 PM3 PM6 PM6 PM9 PM9 PM12 AM12 AMSummerWinter
foghazedrizzlelight rainmoderate rainheavy rainfreezing rainsleetsnow grainslight snowmoderate snowheavy snowhailthunderstorm
The hourly observed weather, color coded by category (in order of severity). If multiple reports are present, the most severe code is shown.
DayObservationsPrecipitationCodes
Sun, Mar 1 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, TS, VCTS, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Mon, Mar 2 Recent Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Thunderstorm with Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Light Drizzle, Haze, MistREVCTS, VCTS, -TSRA, TSRA, RERA, -RA, -DZ, HZ, BR
Tue, Mar 3 Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, MistRA, RERA, -RA, BR
Wed, Mar 4 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Haze, MistVCTS, -TSRA, HZ, BR
Thu, Mar 5 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Fri, Mar 6 Recent Thunderstorm with Drizzle, Thunderstorm with Drizzle, Haze, MistRETSDZ, TSDZ, HZ, BR
Sat, Mar 7 Thunderstorm, Recent Rain, Showers of Rain, Haze, MistTS, RERA, SHRA, HZ, BR
Sun, Mar 8 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, Mist, Showers in the VicinityVCTS, RA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR, VCSH
Mon, Mar 9 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Thunderstorm with Rain, Rain, Haze, MistVCTS, -TSRA, TSRA, RA, HZ, BR
Tue, Mar 10 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Thunderstorm with Rain, Rain, Light Rain, HazeRETS, TS, VCTS, -TSRA, TSRA, RA, -RA, HZ
Wed, Mar 11 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Heavy Rain, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Heavy Rain, Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, VCTS, +TSRA, -TSRA, +RA, RA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Thu, Mar 12 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistVCTS, HZ, BR
Fri, Mar 13 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, VCTS, -TSRA, -RA, HZ, BR
Sat, Mar 14 Recent Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistREVCTS, VCTS, HZ, BR
Sun, Mar 15 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Heavy Rain, Thunderstorm with Rain, Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, MistVCTS, +TSRA, TSRA, RA, RERA, -RA, BR
Mon, Mar 16 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Thunderstorm with Rain, Haze, MistVCTS, -TSRA, TSRA, HZ, BR
Tue, Mar 17 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Wed, Mar 18 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Thu, Mar 19 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistVCTS, HZ, BR
Fri, Mar 20 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Thunderstorm with Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, VCTS, -TSRA, TSRA, -RA, HZ, BR
Sat, Mar 21 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistVCTS, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Sun, Mar 22 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Thunderstorm with Rain, Recent Rain, MistRETS, VCTS, -TSRA, TSRA, RERA, BR
Mon, Mar 23 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistVCTS, HZ, BR
Tue, Mar 24 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, TS, VCTS, -TSRA, -RA, HZ, BR
Wed, Mar 25 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, TS, VCTS, -TSRA, RA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Thu, Mar 26 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistVCTS, RA, -RA, HZ, BR
Fri, Mar 27 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Sat, Mar 28 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Sun, Mar 29 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Mon, Mar 30 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistRETS, TS, VCTS, HZ, BR
Tue, Mar 31 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistVCTS, HZ, BR
Wed, Apr 1 Recent Thunderstorm, Recent Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistRETS, REVCTS, TS, VCTS, HZ, BR
Thu, Apr 2 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Thunderstorm with Rain, Heavy Rain, Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, Mist, Recent Unknown WeatherRETS, TS, VCTS, -TSRA, TSRA, +RA, RA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR, RE
Fri, Apr 3 Recent Rain, Haze, MistRERA, HZ, BR
Sat, Apr 4 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Heavy Rain, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Thunderstorm with Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Showers of Light Rain, Haze, MistVCTS, +TSRA, -TSRA, TSRA, RERA, -RA, -SHRA, HZ, BR
Sun, Apr 5 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Recent Rain, Haze, Fog, MistRETS, VCTS, RERA, HZ, FG, BR
Mon, Apr 6 Recent Rain, Haze, MistRERA, HZ, BR
Tue, Apr 7 Recent Thunderstorm, Recent Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Rain, Heavy Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, REVCTS, VCTS, TSRA, +RA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Wed, Apr 8 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistVCTS, RA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Thu, Apr 9 Recent Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistREVCTS, VCTS, RA, -RA, HZ, BR
Fri, Apr 10 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Sat, Apr 11 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistVCTS, HZ, BR
Sun, Apr 12 Recent Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Rain, Light Rain, Showers of Light Rain, Haze, MistREVCTS, VCTS, RA, -RA, -SHRA, HZ, BR
Mon, Apr 13 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Rain, Haze, MistVCTS, TSRA, HZ, BR
Tue, Apr 14 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistVCTS, HZ, BR
Wed, Apr 15 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistVCTS, RA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Thu, Apr 16 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Fri, Apr 17 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm with Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, TS, TSRA, -RA, HZ, BR
Sat, Apr 18 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistVCTS, HZ, BR
Sun, Apr 19 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, TS, -TSRA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Mon, Apr 20 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Thunderstorm with Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, VCTS, -TSRA, TSRA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Tue, Apr 21 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Wed, Apr 22 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistRETS, VCTS, HZ, BR
Thu, Apr 23 MistBR
Fri, Apr 24 Drizzle, Recent Drizzle, Haze, MistDZ, REDZ, HZ, BR
Sat, Apr 25 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Heavy Rain, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, MistRETS, VCTS, +TSRA, -TSRA, RERA, -RA, BR
Sun, Apr 26 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Light Drizzle, Haze, MistRETS, VCTS, RA, RERA, -RA, -DZ, HZ, BR
Mon, Apr 27 Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Mist, Showers in the VicinityRA, RERA, -RA, BR, VCSH
Tue, Apr 28 Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Wed, Apr 29 Recent Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistREVCTS, HZ, BR
Thu, Apr 30 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Fri, May 1 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, HazeVCTS, RA, RERA, -RA, HZ
Sat, May 2 Recent Showers of Rain, Showers of Light Rain, HazeRESHRA, -SHRA, HZ
Sun, May 3 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm with Heavy Rain, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Thunderstorm with Rain, Showers of Heavy Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, +TSRA, -TSRA, TSRA, +SHRA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Mon, May 4 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, VCTS, -TSRA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Tue, May 5 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistVCTS, HZ, BR
Wed, May 6 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Thu, May 7 Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Haze, MistVCTS, HZ, BR
Fri, May 8 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Sat, May 9 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, TS, VCTS, -TSRA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Sun, May 10 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, -TSRA, -RA, HZ, BR
Mon, May 11 Light Rain, Haze, Mist-RA, HZ, BR
Tue, May 12 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Wed, May 13 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Thu, May 14 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Recent Drizzle, Haze, MistRETS, VCTS, -TSRA, REDZ, HZ, BR
Fri, May 15 Recent Thunderstorm, Recent Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Rain, Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, REVCTS, VCTS, TSRA, RA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Sat, May 16 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Sun, May 17 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Mon, May 18 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Tue, May 19 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Wed, May 20 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Thu, May 21 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Fri, May 22 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Sat, May 23 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Sun, May 24 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Mon, May 25 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Tue, May 26 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Wed, May 27 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Thu, May 28 HazeHZ
Fri, May 29 Recent Thunderstorm, Thunderstorm in the Vicinity, Thunderstorm with Light Rain, Recent Rain, Light Rain, Haze, MistRETS, VCTS, -TSRA, RERA, -RA, HZ, BR
Sat, May 30 Haze, MistHZ, BR
Sun, May 31 Haze, MistHZ, BR

Hours of Daylight and Twilight in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Hours of Daylight and Twilight in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay0 hr24 hr4 hr20 hr8 hr16 hr12 hr12 hr16 hr8 hr20 hr4 hr24 hr0 hrSummerWinterMar 2112 hr, 7 minMar 2112 hr, 7 mindaydaydaydaynightMay 3111 hr, 48 minMay 3111 hr, 48 min
The number of hours during which the Sun is visible (black line). From bottom (most yellow) to top (most gray), the color bands indicate: full daylight, twilight (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and full night.

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Sunrise & Sunset with Twilight in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay12 AM12 AM2 AM2 AM4 AM4 AM6 AM6 AM8 AM8 AM10 AM10 AM12 PM12 PM2 PM2 PM4 PM4 PM6 PM6 PM8 PM8 PM10 PM10 PM12 AM12 AMSummerWinter5:53 AM5:53 AMApr 305:47 PMApr 305:47 PM5:59 AM5:59 AMMar 16:12 PMMar 16:12 PM5:55 AM5:55 AMMay 245:44 PMMay 245:44 PM5:57 AM5:57 AMMar 216:03 PMMar 216:03 PM
The solar day over the course of the Fall of 2015. From bottom to top, the black lines are the previous solar midnight, sunrise, solar noon, sunset, and the next solar midnight. The day, twilights (civil, nautical, and astronomical), and night are indicated by the color bands from yellow to gray.

Moon Rise, Set & Phases in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Moon Rise, Set & Phases in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay12 AM12 AM4 AM4 AM8 AM8 AM12 PM12 PM4 PM4 PM8 PM8 PM12 AM12 AMSummerWinterFeb 46:10 AMFeb 46:10 AMFeb 196:48 AMFeb 196:48 AMMar 61:06 AMMar 61:06 AMMar 204:37 PMMar 204:37 PMApr 47:06 PMApr 47:06 PMApr 191:57 AMApr 191:57 AMMay 410:43 AMMay 410:43 AMMay 1811:14 AMMay 1811:14 AMJun 211:20 PMJun 211:20 PMJun 169:06 PMJun 169:06 PM5:45 PM5:45 PM5:56 AM5:56 AM5:51 PM5:51 PM6:08 AM6:08 AM5:33 AM5:33 AM6:02 PM6:02 PM5:52 PM5:52 PM6:19 AM6:19 AM6:08 AM6:08 AM5:15 PM5:15 PM5:49 AM5:49 AM5:47 AM5:47 AM5:33 PM5:33 PM6:16 AM6:16 AM5:28 AM5:28 AM
The time in which the moon is above the horizon (light blue area), with new moons (dark gray lines) and full moons (blue lines) indicated. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Humidity Comfort Levels in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Humidity Comfort Levels in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay12 AM12 AM3 AM3 AM6 AM6 AM9 AM9 AM12 PM12 PM3 PM3 PM6 PM6 PM9 PM9 PM12 AM12 AMSummerWinter
dry 55°F comfortable 60°F humid 65°F muggy 70°F oppressive 75°F miserable
The hourly reported humidity comfort level, categorized by dew point. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Wind Speed in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Wind Speed in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay0 mph0 mph5 mph5 mph10 mph10 mph15 mph15 mph20 mph20 mph25 mph25 mph30 mph30 mph35 mph35 mphSummerWinter
The daily range of reported wind speeds (gray bars), with maximum gust speeds (red ticks).

Hourly Wind Speed in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Hourly Wind Speed in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay12 AM12 AM3 AM3 AM6 AM6 AM9 AM9 AM12 PM12 PM3 PM3 PM6 PM6 PM9 PM9 PM12 AM12 AMSummerWinter
0 mph calm 1 mph light air 4 mph light breeze 8 mph gentle breeze 13 mph moderate breeze 18 mph fresh breeze 25 mph strong breeze 31 mph near gale 39 mph gale 47 mph strong gale 55 mph storm 64 mph violent storm 73 mph hurricane force
The hourly reported wind speed, color coded into bands according to the Beaufort scale. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Hourly Wind Direction in 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Hourly Wind Direction in 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay12 AM12 AM3 AM3 AM6 AM6 AM9 AM9 AM12 PM12 PM3 PM3 PM6 PM6 PM9 PM9 PM12 AM12 AMSummerWinter
calmnortheastsouthwest
The hourly reported wind direction, color coded by compass point. The shaded overlays indicate night and civil twilight.

Atmospheric Pressure in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport

Atmospheric Pressure in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay29.65 inHg29.65 inHg29.70 inHg29.70 inHg29.75 inHg29.75 inHg29.80 inHg29.80 inHg29.85 inHg29.85 inHg29.90 inHg29.90 inHg29.95 inHg29.95 inHg30.00 inHg30.00 inHg30.05 inHg30.05 inHgSummerWinter
The daily range of atmospheric pressure (gray bars), as measured by the altimeter setting reported in e.g. a METAR report.

Number of Reports by Day in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport 2015

Number of Reports by Day in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay002020404060608080100100SummerWinter
regularspecialcorrection
The number of reports per day.

Reports by Hour in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport 2015

Reports by Hour in the Fall of 2015 at Soekarno-Hatta International AirportMarAprMay12 AM12 AM3 AM3 AM6 AM6 AM9 AM9 AM12 PM12 PM3 PM3 PM6 PM6 PM9 PM9 PM12 AM12 AMSummerWinter
regularspecialcorrection
Indication of what types of reports were recorded during each hour.

This report graphically illustrates the historical weather reports recorded by the weather station at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in the fall of 2015.

METAR Reports

Airport weather stations throughout the world routinely issue METAR weather reports . Such reports are used by pilots, air traffic controllers, meteorologists, climatologists, and other researchers. They are published via radio transmission and on the internet. We have been collecting and archiving published METAR reports since 2011, and have found third-party sources for archived reports from years prior to that.

ISD Reports

The Integrated Surface Database (ISD), maintained and published by NOAA's National Center for Environmental Information , consists of hourly and synoptic weather reports from a variety of sources. We use ISD data to complement and backfill for our METAR archive.

Other Data

The sources for the averages shown in the daily temperature chart are discussed in greater detail on this station's Averages Report.

All data relating to the Sun's position (e.g., sunrise and sunset) are computed using astronomical formulas from the book, Astronomical Algorithms 2nd Edition , by Jean Meeus.

Names, locations, and time zones of places and some airports come from the GeoNames Geographical Database .

Time zones for airports and weather stations are provided by AskGeo.com .

Maps are © Esri, with data from National Geographic, Esri, DeLorme, NAVTEQ, UNEP-WCMC, USGS, NASA, ESA, METI, NRCAN, GEBCO, NOAA, and iPC.

Disclaimer

The information on this site is provided as is, without any assurances as to its accuracy or suitability for any purpose. Weather data is prone to errors, outages, and other defects. We assume no responsibility for any decisions made on the basis of the content presented on this site.

We draw particular cautious attention to our reliance on the MERRA-2 model-based reconstructions for a number of important data series. While having the tremendous advantages of temporal and spatial completeness, these reconstructions: (1) are based on computer models that may have model-based errors, (2) are coarsely sampled on a 50 km grid and are therefore unable to reconstruct the local variations of many microclimates, and (3) have particular difficulty with the weather in some coastal areas, especially small islands.

We further caution that our travel scores are only as good as the data that underpin them, that weather conditions at any given location and time are unpredictable and variable, and that the definition of the scores reflects a particular set of preferences that may not agree with those of any particular reader.

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