This report describes the typical weather at the Makkah (Mecca, Saudi Arabia) weather station over the course of an average January. It is based on the historical records from 1984 to 2012. Earlier records are either unavailable or unreliable.
Mecca has a hot desert climate. The area within 25 mi of this station is covered by shrublands (98%) and built-up areas (3%).
The month of January is characterized by essentially constant daily high temperatures, with daily highs around 86°F throughout the month, exceeding 92°F or dropping below 79°F only one day in ten.
Over the course of January, the length of the day is essentially constant. The shortest day of the month is January 1 with 10:51 hours of daylight; the longest day is January 31 with 11:11 hours of daylight.
The earliest sunrise is at 6:59am on January 1; the latest sunset is at 6:10pm on January 31; the latest sunrise is at 7:02am on January 17; the earliest sunset is at 5:50pm on January 1.
Daylight saving time (DST) is not observed in 2012.
The median cloud cover ranges from 18% (mostly clear) to 24% (mostly clear). The trend is for the sky to be clearing with the median cloud cover decreasing by 5% from the start to the end of the month.
On January 16, a representative day, the sky is clear or mostly clear 56% of the time, partly cloudy 20% of the time, and mostly cloudy or overcast 4% of the time.
The average probability that some form of precipitation will be observed in a given day is 6%, with little variation over the course of the month.
Throughout January, the most common forms of precipitation are thunderstorms, moderate rain, and light rain.
Thunderstorms are the most severe precipitation observed during 34% of those days with precipitation. They are most likely around January 1, when it is observed during 3% of all days.
Moderate rain is the most severe precipitation observed during 33% of those days with precipitation. It is most likely around January 1, when it is observed during 2% of all days.
Light rain is the most severe precipitation observed during 26% of those days with precipitation. It is most likely around January 28, when it is observed during 2% of all days.
Either snow is exceptionally unlikely to fall at this location in January or this station does not reliably report precipitation types.
The relative humidity typically ranges from 37% (comfortable) to 79% (humid) over the course of a typical January, rarely dropping below 26% (dry), or exceeding 91% (very humid).
The air is driest around January 31, at which time the relative humidity drops below 42% (comfortable) three days out of four; it is most humid around January 1, rising above 72% (humid) three days out of four.
Dew point is often a better measure of how comfortable a person will find the weather than relative humidity because it more directly relates to whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid.
Over the course of a typical January, the dew point typically varies from 51°F (very comfortable) to 65°F (mildy humid) and is rarely below 41°F (dry) or above 71°F (very muggy).
The time of the month between January 1 and January 31 is the most comfortable, with dew points that are neither too dry nor too muggy.
Over the course of January typical wind speeds vary from 0 mph to 9 mph (calm to gentle breeze), rarely exceeding 14 mph (moderate breeze).
The highest average wind speed of 4 mph (light breeze) occurs around January 31, at which time the average daily maximum wind speed is 9 mph (gentle breeze).
The lowest average wind speed of 3 mph (light air) occurs around January 1, at which time the average daily maximum wind speed is 8 mph (gentle breeze).