This report describes the typical weather at the Tocumen International Airport (Panama City) weather station over the course of an average year. It is based on the historical records from 1974 to 2012. Earlier records are either unavailable or unreliable.
Panama City has a tropical monsoon climate with short dry season. The area within 25 mi of this station is covered by oceans and seas (37%), forests (33%), and croplands (25%).
Over the course of a year, the temperature typically varies from 72Â°F to 91Â°F and is rarely below 68Â°F or above 93Â°F.
The warm season lasts from February 16 to April 26 with an average daily high temperature above 90Â°F. The hottest day of the year is April 8, with an average high of 91Â°F and low of 74Â°F.
The cold season lasts from September 2 to November 22 with an average daily high temperature below 87Â°F. The coldest day of the year is January 20, with an average low of 72Â°F and high of 89Â°F.
The length of the day does not vary substantially over the course of the year, staying within 40 minutes of 12 hours throughout. The shortest day is December 21 with 11:36 hours of daylight; the longest day is June 20 with 12:39 hours of daylight.
The earliest sunrise is at 5:56am on May 27 and the latest sunset is at 6:42pm on July 15. The latest sunrise is at 6:39am on January 30 and the earliest sunset is at 5:53pm on November 11.
Daylight saving time (DST) is not observed in 2012.
The median cloud cover ranges from 30% (mostly clear) to 67% (partly cloudy). The sky is cloudiest on August 25 and clearest on January 23. The clearer part of the year begins around December 2. The cloudier part of the year begins around April 27.
On January 23, the clearest day of the year, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 82% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 8% of the time.
On August 25, the cloudiest day of the year, the sky is overcast, mostly cloudy, or partly cloudy 73% of the time, and clear or mostly clear 21% of the time.
The probability that precipitation will be observed at this location varies throughout the year. Precipitation is most likely around October 8, occurring in 85% of days. Precipitation is least likely around February 21, occurring in 10% of days.
Over the entire year, the most common forms of precipitation are thunderstorms and moderate rain.
Thunderstorms are the most severe precipitation observed during 70% of those days with precipitation. They are most likely around August 24, when it is observed during 66% of all days.
Moderate rain is the most severe precipitation observed during 19% of those days with precipitation. It is most likely around November 12, when it is observed during 19% of all days.
During the warm season, which lasts from February 16 to April 26, there is a 20% average chance that precipitation will be observed at some point during a given day. When precipitation does occur it is most often in the form of thunderstorms (49% of days with precipitation have at worst thunderstorms), moderate rain (31%), drizzle (11%), and light rain (7%).
During the cold season, which lasts from September 2 to November 22, there is a 80% average chance that precipitation will be observed at some point during a given day. When precipitation does occur it is most often in the form of thunderstorms (72% of days with precipitation have at worst thunderstorms) and moderate rain (18%).
Either snow is exceptionally unlikely to fall at any time during the year at this location or this station does not reliably report precipitation types.
The relative humidity typically ranges from 49% (comfortable) to 98% (very humid) over the course of the year, rarely dropping below 40% (comfortable) and reaching as high as 100% (very humid).
The air is driest around March 9, at which time the relative humidity drops below 53% (mildly humid) three days out of four; it is most humid around September 23, exceeding 99% (very humid) three days out of four.
Dew point is often a better measure of how comfortable a person will find the weather than relative humidity because it more directly relates to whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid.
Over the course of a year, the dew point typically varies from 66Â°F (muggy) to 77Â°F (oppressive) and is rarely below 63Â°F (mildy humid) or above 80Â°F (oppressive).
Over the course of the year typical wind speeds vary from 0 mph to 15 mph (calm to moderate breeze), rarely exceeding 22 mph (fresh breeze).
The highest average wind speed of 6 mph (light breeze) occurs around March 8, at which time the average daily maximum wind speed is 15 mph (moderate breeze).
The lowest average wind speed of 3 mph (light air) occurs around June 12, at which time the average daily maximum wind speed is 10 mph (gentle breeze).