This report describes the historical weather record at the Astana International Airport (Astana, Kazakhstan) during 2012. This station has records back to January 1948.
Astana has a humid continental climate with warm summers and no dry season. The area within 25 mi of this station is covered by croplands (48%), grasslands (42%), and tundra (6%)
Daylight saving time (DST) was not observed at Astana during 2012.
2012 was a leap year and thus has 366 days rather than the normal 365. Leap years occur every fourth year and the extra day is always February 29th. In 2012 February 29th falls on a Wednesday.
The summer and winter solstices and the spring and fall equinoxes mark the passing of the seasons. They fall on nearly the same day each year, with differences of a day or two depending on the year. In 2012 they occurred on:
|Spring Equinox||Tuesday, 20 March 2012.|
|Summer Solstice||Wednesday, 20 June 2012.|
|Fall Equinox||Saturday, 22 September 2012.|
|Winter Solstice||Friday, 21 December 2012.|
The hottest day of 2012 was August 20, with a high temperature of 99°F. For reference, on that day the average high temperature is 77°F and the high temperature exceeds 88°F only one day in ten. The hottest month of 2012 was July with an average daily high temperature of 86°F.
Relative to the average, the hottest day was April 12. The high temperature that day was 77°F, compared to the average of 52°F, a difference of 25°F. In relative terms the warmest month was April, with an average high temperature of 66°F, compared to an typical value of 54°F.
The longest warm spell was from April 3 to April 22, constituting 20 consecutive days with warmer than average high temperatures. The month of April had the largest fraction of warmer than average days with 90% days with higher than average high temperatures.
The coldest day of 2012 was December 17, with a low temperature of -45°F. For reference, on that day the average low temperature is -3°F and the low temperature drops below -23°F only one day in ten. The coldest month of 2012 was February with an average daily low temperature of -19°F.
Relative to the average, the coldest day was December 17. The low temperature that day was -45°F, compared to the average of -3°F, a difference of 43°F. In relative terms the coldest month was December, with an average low temperature of -16°F, compared to an typical value of -1°F.
The longest cold spell was from January 17 to February 21, constituting 36 consecutive days with cooler than average low temperatures. The month of February had the largest fraction of cooler than average days with 97% days with lower than average low temperatures.
The longest freezing spell was from January 1 to March 3, constituting 63 consecutive days with temperatures strictly below freezing.
The clearest month of 2012 was January, with 45% of days being more clear than cloudy. The longest spell of clear weather was from January 18 to January 25, constituting 8 consecutive days that were clearer than they were cloudy.
The cloudiest month of 2012 was November, with 80% of days being more cloudy than clear. The longest spell of cloudy weather was from November 9 to November 26, constituting 18 consecutive days that were cloudier than they were clear.
This station provides hourly reports of significant weather events at and around the station, but does not report the quantity of precipitation at the station itself. This is common for weather stations located outside of the United States, and for a small subset of stations in the United States that are located at lesser used and smaller airports.
This station reports when significant weather events (including precipitation) are visually observed at or near the station. Such events do not always correspond to measured quantities of liquid equivalent precipitation, such as when the event is near by not at the station, or in the case of solid precipitation that does not melt in the collection basin.
The day in 2012 with the most precipitation observations was February 21. There were 24 hourly weather reports that day (out of a maximum of 24) in which some form of precipitation was observated at or near the station. The month with the most precipitation observations was November, with 313 hourly present weather reports involving some form of precipitation.
As determined by the present weather reports, the longest dry spell was from April 14 to April 28, constituting 15 consecutive days with no observed precipitation. The month with the largest fraction of days without observed precipitation was April, with 73% of days reporting no observed precipitation at all.
The month with the largest fraction of days with at least some observed precipitation was November, with 83% of days reporting some observed precipitation.
In this section we consider only those weather reports that indicate liquid precipitation. For the purposes of this analysis, we include thunderstorms even though some thunderstorms are not accompanied by liquid precipitation.
The month of 2012 with the largest number of those reports was October, with a total of 90 reports. The day with the largest number of those reports was May 3, with a total of 16 reports.
This station reports both when snow is observed to be falling and the measured depth of the snow on the ground. Both are subject to erroneous reports, but the latter is significantly less reliable. Please bear this in mind when reading this section.
In this section we consider hourly weather reports that contain an observation of falling snow. These reports do not necessarily correspond to accumulation.
The first reported snow fall in 2012 was on October 5; the last was on March 29. The month of 2012 with the largest number of those reports was November, with a total of 296 reports. The day with the largest number of those reports was February 21, with a total of 24 reports.
Snow depth on the ground is an optional and inconsistently reported part of standard weather reports. It is rarely reported more often than every six hours, it is often skipped, it is often reported erroneously, and a snow depth of zero is normally not distinguished from a missing report. These issues (particularly the last one) make it hard to collect statistics on snow depth with any confidence. To overcome this issue, we base our statistics on only those reports with present non-zero measurements of snow depth. Reports that fail to mention snow that is present, and reports that do not report snow depth because there is no snow on the ground are excluded because they cannot be distinguished from one another.
The first reported accumulation in 2012 was on November 5. The last day of the snow season with snow reported on the ground was March 31. The day with the deepest snow depth was December 28, with an average snow depth of 13.0" over the course of the day. The longest stretch of time during which there was always snow on the ground was from February 23 to March 9 (16 consecutive days).
Humidity is an important factor in determining how weather conditions feel to a person experiencing them. Hot and humid days feel even hotter than hot and dry days because the high level of water content in humid air discourages the evaporation of sweat from a person's skin.
When reading the graph below, keep in mind that the hottest part of the day tends to be the least humid, so the daily low (brown) traces are more relevant for understanding daytime comfort than the daily high (blue) traces, which typically occur during the night. Applying that observation, the least humid month of 2012 was May with an average daily low humidity of 26%, and the most humid month was November with an average daily low humidity of 71%.
But it is important to keep in mind that humidity does not tell the whole picture and the dew point is often a better measure of how comfortable a person will find a given set of weather conditions. Please see the next section for continued discussion of this point.
Dew point is the temperature below which water vapor will condense into liquid water. It is therefore also related to the rate of evaporation of liquid water. Since the evaporation of sweat is an important cooling mechanism for the human body, the dew point is an important measurement for understanding how dry, comfortable, or humid a given set of weather conditions will feel.
Generally speaking, dew points below 50°F will feel a bit dry to some people, but comfortable to people accustomed to dry conditions; dew points from 50°F to 68°F are fairly comfortable to most people, and dew points above 68°F are increasingly uncomfortable, becoming oppressive around 77°F.
To take some examples, and basing our categorization on the daily high dew point in 2012, January had 31 dry days, no comfortable days, and no humid days; April had 29 dry days, 1 comfortable day, and no humid days; July had 3 dry days, 28 comfortable days, and no humid days; and October had 31 dry days, no comfortable days, and no humid days.
The highest sustained wind speed was 40 mph, occurring on March 19; the highest daily mean wind speed was 25 mph (March 19); and the highest wind gust speed was 58 mph (May 1).
The windiest month was November, with an average wind speed of 11 mph. The least windy month was January, with an average wind speed of 5 mph.
Visibility is the maximum distance at which a given reference object or light can be clearly discerned. In the United States, visibilities that are greater than or equal to 10 miles are typically reported as 10 miles.
The day of 2012 with the lowest average visibility was February 21, with an average visibility of 1.6 mi. The month with the lowest average visibility was February, with an average visibility of 5.2 mi. With an average visibility of 7.5 mi, the month of May had the highest average visibility.
The cloud ceiling is the altitude of the lowest layer of clouds that are at categorized as broken (mostly cloudy) or overcast (cloudy). If no such cloud layer exists then the ceiling is unlimited and no value is reported.
The day of 2012 with the lowest average cloud ceiling was February 25, with an average cloud ceiling of 148'. The month with the lowest average cloud ceiling was January, with an average cloud ceiling of 2055'. The month of May has the highest average cloud ceiling, with an average cloud ceiling of 8906'.