This report describes the historical weather record at the South Bend (South Bend, Indiana, United States) during 1956. This station has records back to January 1948.
South Bend, Indiana has a humid continental climate with hot summers and no dry season. The area within 25 mi of this station is covered by croplands (73%), forests (16%), built-up areas (4%), oceans and seas (4%), and grasslands (3%)
Daylight saving time (DST) was not observed at South Bend, Indiana during 1956.
1956 was a leap year and thus has 366 days rather than the normal 365. Leap years occur every fourth year and the extra day is always February 29th. In 1956 February 29th falls on a Wednesday.
The summer and winter solstices and the spring and fall equinoxes mark the passing of the seasons. They fall on nearly the same day each year, with differences of a day or two depending on the year. In 1956 they occurred on:
|Spring Equinox||Tuesday, 20 March 1956.|
|Summer Solstice||Thursday, 21 June 1956.|
|Fall Equinox||Sunday, 23 September 1956.|
|Winter Solstice||Friday, 21 December 1956.|
The hottest day of 1956 was July 1, with a high temperature of 99°F. For reference, on that day the average high temperature is 82°F and the high temperature exceeds 90°F only one day in ten. The hottest month of 1956 was June with an average daily high temperature of 82°F.
Relative to the average, the hottest day was April 3. The high temperature that day was 79°F, compared to the average of 54°F, a difference of 25°F. In relative terms the warmest month was October, with an average high temperature of 71°F, compared to an typical value of 61°F.
The longest warm spell was from October 12 to November 8, constituting 28 consecutive days with warmer than average high temperatures. The month of October had the largest fraction of warmer than average days with 87% days with higher than average high temperatures.
The coldest day of 1956 was January 23, with a low temperature of 2°F. For reference, on that day the average low temperature is 17°F and the low temperature drops below 0°F only one day in ten. The coldest month of 1956 was January with an average daily low temperature of 18°F.
Relative to the average, the coldest day was June 2. The low temperature that day was 37°F, compared to the average of 56°F, a difference of 19°F. In relative terms the coldest month was September, with an average low temperature of 50°F, compared to an typical value of 55°F.
The longest cold spell was from April 15 to April 27, constituting 13 consecutive days with cooler than average low temperatures. The month of March had the largest fraction of cooler than average days with 77% days with lower than average low temperatures.
The clearest month of 1956 was June, with 70% of days being more clear than cloudy. The longest spell of clear weather was from June 2 to June 15, constituting 14 consecutive days that were clearer than they were cloudy.
The cloudiest month of 1956 was December, with 68% of days being more cloudy than clear. The longest spell of cloudy weather was from December 19 to December 27, constituting 9 consecutive days that were cloudier than they were clear.
This station reports both the quantity of liquid precipitation and categorical observations of precipitation (e.g., moderate rain, or heavy snow). Both are subject to erroneous reports, but the former is particularly prone to false reports, especially ones indicating an excessive quantity of precipitation. Please bear this in mind when reading the extrema reported in this section.
The day with the largest quantity of precipitation was August 12. That day saw 2.035" of liquid (or liquid equivalent) precipitation, compared to a median value of 0.182". The month with the most precipitation was May, with 4.744", compared to a median value of 3.524".
As determined by quantitative measurements, the longest dry spell was from May 31 to June 15, constituting 16 consecutive days with no measured precipitation. The month with the largest fraction of dry days was October, with 87% of days reporting no measured precipitation at all.
The month with the largest fraction of days with at least some measured precipitation was December, with 55% of days reporting some measured precipitation.
This station reports when significant weather events (including precipitation) are visually observed at or near the station. Such events do not always correspond to measured quantities of liquid equivalent precipitation, such as when the event is near by not at the station, or in the case of solid precipitation that does not melt in the collection basin.
The day in 1956 with the most precipitation observations was December 25. There were 24 hourly weather reports that day (out of a maximum of 24) in which some form of precipitation was observated at or near the station. The month with the most precipitation observations was December, with 247 hourly present weather reports involving some form of precipitation.
As determined by the present weather reports, the longest dry spell was from October 7 to October 20, constituting 14 consecutive days with no observed precipitation. The month with the largest fraction of days without observed precipitation was October, with 84% of days reporting no observed precipitation at all.
The month with the largest fraction of days with at least some observed precipitation was March, with 77% of days reporting some observed precipitation.
In this section we consider only those weather reports that indicate liquid precipitation. For the purposes of this analysis, we include thunderstorms even though some thunderstorms are not accompanied by liquid precipitation.
The month of 1956 with the largest number of those reports was December, with a total of 116 reports. The day with the largest number of those reports was December 15, with a total of 21 reports.
This station reports when snow is observed falling but does not report the quantity of snow that has fallen or the depth of snow on the ground.
In this section we consider hourly weather reports that contain an observation of falling snow. These reports do not necessarily correspond to accumulation.
The first reported snow fall in 1956 was on November 8; the last was on April 23. The month of 1956 with the largest number of those reports was February, with a total of 160 reports. The day with the largest number of those reports was December 25, with a total of 24 reports.
Humidity is an important factor in determining how weather conditions feel to a person experiencing them. Hot and humid days feel even hotter than hot and dry days because the high level of water content in humid air discourages the evaporation of sweat from a person's skin.
When reading the graph below, keep in mind that the hottest part of the day tends to be the least humid, so the daily low (brown) traces are more relevant for understanding daytime comfort than the daily high (blue) traces, which typically occur during the night. Applying that observation, the least humid month of 1956 was September with an average daily low humidity of 40%, and the most humid month was December with an average daily low humidity of 72%.
But it is important to keep in mind that humidity does not tell the whole picture and the dew point is often a better measure of how comfortable a person will find a given set of weather conditions. Please see the next section for continued discussion of this point.
Dew point is the temperature below which water vapor will condense into liquid water. It is therefore also related to the rate of evaporation of liquid water. Since the evaporation of sweat is an important cooling mechanism for the human body, the dew point is an important measurement for understanding how dry, comfortable, or humid a given set of weather conditions will feel.
Generally speaking, dew points below 50°F will feel a bit dry to some people, but comfortable to people accustomed to dry conditions; dew points from 50°F to 68°F are fairly comfortable to most people, and dew points above 68°F are increasingly uncomfortable, becoming oppressive around 77°F.
To take some examples, and basing our categorization on the daily high dew point in 1956, January had 31 dry days, no comfortable days, and no humid days; April had 25 dry days, 5 comfortable days, and no humid days; July had no dry days, 22 comfortable days, and 9 humid days; and October had 12 dry days, 19 comfortable days, and no humid days.
The highest sustained wind speed was 38 mph, occurring on November 21; the highest daily mean wind speed was 23 mph (November 21);
The windiest month was April, with an average wind speed of 13 mph. The least windy month was August, with an average wind speed of 9 mph.
Visibility is the maximum distance at which a given reference object or light can be clearly discerned. In the United States, visibilities that are greater than or equal to 10 miles are typically reported as 10 miles.
The day of 1956 with the lowest average visibility was December 15, with an average visibility of 0.8 mi. The month with the lowest average visibility was December, with an average visibility of 6.6 mi. With an average visibility of 10.7 mi, the month of June had the highest average visibility.
This station did not reliably report the cloud ceiling during 1956.