This report describes the typical weather at the Tocumen International Airport (Panama City) weather station over the course of an average December. It is based on the historical records from 1974 to 2012. Earlier records are either unavailable or unreliable.
Panama City has a tropical monsoon climate with short dry season. The area within 25 mi of this station is covered by oceans and seas (37%), forests (33%), and croplands (25%).
The month of December is characterized by essentially constant daily high temperatures, with daily highs around 88°F throughout the month, exceeding 91°F or dropping below 83°F only one day in ten.
Over the course of December, the length of the day is essentially constant. The shortest day of the month is December 11 with 11:36 hours of daylight; the longest day is December 3 with 11:38 hours of daylight.
The earliest sunrise is at 6:18am on December 1; the latest sunset is at 6:09pm on December 31; the latest sunrise is at 6:33am on December 31; the earliest sunset is at 5:56pm on December 1.
Daylight saving time (DST) is not observed in 2012.
The median cloud cover ranges from 35% (mostly clear) to 49% (partly cloudy). The trend is for the sky to be clearing with the median cloud cover decreasing by 14% from the start to the end of the month.
On December 31, the clearest day of the month, the sky is clear, mostly clear, or partly cloudy 78% of the time, and overcast or mostly cloudy 13% of the time.
On December 1, the cloudiest day of the month, the sky is overcast, mostly cloudy, or partly cloudy 54% of the time, and clear or mostly clear 40% of the time.
The probability that precipitation will be observed at this location varies throughout the month. Precipitation is most likely around December 1, occurring in 56% of days. Precipitation is least likely around December 31, occurring in 26% of days.
Throughout December, the most common forms of precipitation are thunderstorms and moderate rain.
Thunderstorms are the most severe precipitation observed during 47% of those days with precipitation. They are most likely around December 1, when it is observed during 30% of all days.
Moderate rain is the most severe precipitation observed during 34% of those days with precipitation. It is most likely around December 1, when it is observed during 17% of all days.
Either snow is exceptionally unlikely to fall at this location in December or this station does not reliably report precipitation types.
The relative humidity typically ranges from 57% (mildly humid) to 98% (very humid) over the course of a typical December, rarely dropping below 48% (comfortable) and reaching as high as 100% (very humid).
The air is driest around December 31, at which time the relative humidity drops below 61% (mildly humid) three days out of four; it is most humid around December 1, rising above 96% (very humid) three days out of four.
Dew point is often a better measure of how comfortable a person will find the weather than relative humidity because it more directly relates to whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid.
Over the course of a typical December, the dew point typically varies from 68°F (muggy) to 76°F (oppressive) and is rarely below 65°F (mildy humid) or above 79°F (oppressive).
Over the course of December typical wind speeds vary from 0 mph to 13 mph (calm to moderate breeze), rarely exceeding 20 mph (fresh breeze).
The highest average wind speed of 4 mph (light breeze) occurs around December 31, at which time the average daily maximum wind speed is 13 mph (moderate breeze).
The lowest average wind speed of 3 mph (light breeze) occurs around December 2, at which time the average daily maximum wind speed is 11 mph (gentle breeze).