This report describes the typical weather at the Madrid-Torrejón Airport (Madrid, Spain) weather station over the course of an average December. It is based on the historical records from 1997 to 2012. Earlier records are either unavailable or unreliable.
Madrid has a cold semi-arid steppe climate. The area within 25 mi of this station is covered by croplands (92%), shrublands (5%), and built-up areas (3%).
The month of December is characterized by gradually falling daily high temperatures, with daily highs around 52°F throughout the month, exceeding 59°F or dropping below 43°F only one day in ten.
Over the course of December, the length of the day is essentially constant. The shortest day of the month is December 24 with 9:17 hours of daylight; the longest day is December 1 with 9:29 hours of daylight.
The earliest sunrise is at 8:18am on December 1; the latest sunset is at 5:57pm on December 31; the latest sunrise is at 8:37am on December 31; the earliest sunset is at 5:47pm on December 10.
Daylight savings time is observed in 2012 but it neither starts nor ends in December, so the entire month is in standard time.
The median cloud cover is 73% (partly cloudy) and does not vary substantially over the course of the month.
On December 16, a representative day, the sky is clear or mostly clear 15% of the time, partly cloudy 14% of the time, and mostly cloudy or overcast 34% of the time.
The average probability that some form of precipitation will be observed in a given day is 34%, with little variation over the course of the month.
Throughout December, the most common forms of precipitation are moderate rain, light rain, and drizzle.
Moderate rain is the most severe precipitation observed during 50% of those days with precipitation. It is most likely around December 2, when it is observed during 19% of all days.
Light rain is the most severe precipitation observed during 29% of those days with precipitation. It is most likely around December 31, when it is observed during 11% of all days.
Drizzle is the most severe precipitation observed during 10% of those days with precipitation. It is most likely around December 30, when it is observed during 4% of all days.
The likelihood of snow falling is highest around December 28, occurring in 2% of days.
Either snow rarely accumulates at this location in December or snow depth measurements are unavailable or unreliable.
The relative humidity typically ranges from 53% (mildly humid) to 96% (very humid) over the course of a typical December, rarely dropping below 36% (comfortable) and reaching as high as 100% (very humid).
The air is driest around December 20, at which time the relative humidity drops below 64% (mildly humid) three days out of four; it is most humid around December 4, rising above 93% (very humid) three days out of four.
Dew point is often a better measure of how comfortable a person will find the weather than relative humidity because it more directly relates to whether perspiration will evaporate from the skin, thereby cooling the body. Lower dew points feel drier and higher dew points feel more humid.
Over the course of a typical December, the dew point typically varies from 28°F (dry) to 41°F (dry) and is rarely below 20°F (dry) or above 48°F (dry).
Over the course of December typical wind speeds vary from 0 mph to 11 mph (calm to gentle breeze), rarely exceeding 21 mph (fresh breeze).
The highest average wind speed of 6 mph (light breeze) occurs around December 24, at which time the average daily maximum wind speed is 10 mph (gentle breeze).
The lowest average wind speed of 5 mph (light breeze) occurs around December 16, at which time the average daily maximum wind speed is 9 mph (gentle breeze).